Day 3 :
- Track: Risks of Climate Change
Track: Renewable Energy to Mitigate Climate Change
Track: Pollution & its Effects on Climate
Track: Solutions for Climate Change
Location: Room 1
Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China
Cheng Heqin has her expertise in estuarine and coastal sediment dynamics and morphodynamics, integrated coastal zone management. Her long time measurement data sets of the estuarine tidal level, current velocity, bathymetry, bedforms, channel morphology and transition regime of ripple-dune, response of sediment dynamics to the human interventions in the watershed, fishery model in the East China Sea, semi-analytical model of sediment entrapment in estuaries, impact of sea level rise in the Changjiang (Yangtze) river estuary create new pathways for improving sustainable management strategy of coastal system and adaptation estuarine and coastal cities to sea level rise. She has built this challenging strategy after years of experience in research, evaluation, teaching and administration in institutions. The foundation is based on a majority of historical data sets and methodology of field measurements, numerical simulation, huge experiences and data analysis results from her colleagues in her institute, Shanghai Water Authority and many other institutes, which referred to be stakeholders of sea level rise.
Sea level rise (SLR) is a major of climate change. Changing coastal cities are situated in the delta regions expected to be threatened by SLR to various degrees. Shanghai is one of those cities. In recent years, intensifying waterlogging, salt intrusion, wetland loss, and ecosystem degradation in the city have generated the pressing need to create an urban form that is suited to both current and future climates incorporating SLR. However, adaptation planning uptake is slow. This is particularly unfortunate because patterns of urban form interact with mean sea level rise (MSLR) in ways that reduce or intensify its impact. There are currently two main barriers that are significant in arresting the implementation of adaptation planning with reference to the MSLR projections composed of geomorphologic MSLR projections and eustatic MSLR projections from global climate warming, and making a comprehensive risk assessment of MSLR projections. The purpose of this study is to mapping MSLR projections and their risk assessment approaches, and then the adaptation actions in the city. Grey model approaches with linear fitting and the least squares measured tidal levels during1921-2000 in Wusong Vertical Elevation Datum at 5 tidal gauge stations were utilized to estimate the eustatic MSLR (ESLR) projection from climate warming in the area. Hierarchical partitioning analysis of variability in 2000-2009 is used to analyze urban land subsidence (ULS) projection. Digitized historical nautical charts during 1997-2013 were utilized to map the magnitude of bed erosion, e.g. regional sea level fall (RSLF) projection by anthropogenic geomorphologic changes. MIKE 21 was used to simulate the regional SLR (RSLR) caused by the land reclamation. The total decadal SLR (DSLR) is supposed to consist of ESLR, ULS, RSLF, RSLR and tectonic subsidence. Vladimir algorithm was used to calculate the variation in the tidal datum. ATP was used to make the risk assessment involved in the timing and magnitude of MSLR projections on a shortage of fresh water supply in Shanghai city. Four design frequencies of highest tidal level were assessed. The DSLR is 10-16 cm during 2011-2030. The standard of existing seawall needs to be raised. New fresh water resource needs to be sought.
University of Victoria, Canada
David S. Scott, PhD, DSc (hon.), DEng (hon.), is a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering. Formerly, Chair of Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Scott then travelled west to become Founding Director of the University of Victoria’s Institute for Integrated Energy Systems. Dr Scott is the author of Smelling Land; The Hydrogen Defense Against Climate Catastrophe. He chaired Canada’s Federal Advisory Group on Hydrogen Opportunities that produced the report Hydrogen: National Mission for Canada ESBN 0-662-15544-0. Dr. Scott is currently Vice-President (for North America) of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy. In 2006, he was honored with the IAHE Jules Vern Award for ‘Outstanding Contributions to Hydrogen Physics, and Hydrogen Energy Sociology and Philosophy.’
Albert Einstein advised, “Everything should be kept as simple as possible, but not simpler.” Following Einstein’s wisdom, the following energy system chain shows services, technologies, sources and currencies within five functional groups.
The role of energy currencies in energy systems is analogous to the role of financial currencies in financial systems. Neither is a source of energy or wealth, yet both are essential for facilitating energy or financial transactions. Each step, from left towards the right, is a demand-supply step. So where is carbon dioxide emitted? Service technologies emit CO2 when the currencies they use contain carbon. Harvesting technologies emit CO2 when the energy for harvesting is carbon based—like fossil-fueled mining machinery. So to develop a carbon-free system we must evolve towards using only carbon-free energy sources and carbon-free energy currencies.
There are many carbon-free sources—hydraulic, tidal, solar, wind, nuclear and so on. In contrast, there are only two carbon-free currencies. The first is the electronic currency, electricity. But electricity is a poor candidate for free-range transportation, such as cars, trucks, ships and especially aircraft. That’s why we also need a protonic (material) carbon-free currency. A protonic currency must contain only elements found in atmospheric abundance—otherwise when the fuel is burned, the emissions will be environmentally intrusive. Therefore, any candidate fuel can contain only oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Ammonia (NH3) satisfies this compositional constraint. But practical issues like low energy massdensity and toxicity make it troublesome. So we’re left with hydrogen as the only practical carbonfree fuel that can be universally employed for all tasks that today use carbon-based fuels. Hydrogen can also be used as a clean, efficient substitute for many material-harvesting tasks, such as using H2 rather than coke for reducing iron ore in steel making. A hydricity world will be cleaner, systemically more robust and more efficient. It will bring cleaner environments, and is essential to any chance we have to escape climate catastrophe.
Tata Steel Ltd., India
Santanu Sarkar is a Researcher of Environment Research group, R&D, Tata Steel Ltd. He is currently working in area of alternative energy, CO2 capture & sequestration and different environmental remediation in the aspect of iron & steel industry. He has expertise in reduction of GHG emission, modeling & simulation of chemical process and hydride membrane separation process.
Steel sector accounts for 17% of the world’s industrial energy consumption and more than 2% CO2 emission across the globe(Figure 1). Average energy intensity in BF-BOF route is 18.68 GJ,which is 20% of the total cost of steel productionand average CO2 Intensity is 1.77 t CO2 per ton of crude steel production. It has been reported that in between year of 2010 to 2014 the steel production has increased by 16% and consequently CO2 emission also amplified. It has also been quantified 1621 Mt crude steel has been producedin2015and by 2050,it is projected that use of steel will increase by 1.5 times that ofpresent utilization. Thus, steel sectors should move toward renewable energy.
Renewable energy is getting attention in recent years due to environmental pollution caused by utilization of fossil fuel. Moreover, price of fossil fuel is increasing as its natural storage is rapidly decreasing. Steel industries have taken several initiatives for resource allocation of alternative energy and CO2 capture and sequestration. Recently, specific energy consumption and emission has reduced remarkably due to waste heat utilization, scrap based steel production, use of LED based illuminating system, and incorporation of Direct-reduced iron (DRI) and EAF method. Alternative fuels can be generated from steel by-product gases as well as solid wastes and now a day’s utilization of solar energy is also very encouraging. On the other hand several projects are ongoing for reduction CO2 emission such as Ultra-Low Carbon dioxide Steelmaking (ULCOS), adsorbent based CO2 capture, COURSE 50, etc.
Steel sector is very keen to adopt renewable energy based system as well as to develop technologies for CCS. Consequently, there are several successful pilot scale studieshave been completed which are at door step for commercialization.However, several of these methods require huge development before commercialization.
University Carthage, Tunisia
Moktar Hamdi attended the University Provence (France), where he took a Engineer degree in industrial and applied microbiology and He subsequently obtained a PhD degree in microbiology, followed by a post-doctoral period at INSA Toulouse (France)
In 1999, Moktar Hamdi joined National Institute of Applied Sciences and technology as an associate professor being promoted in 2004 to full Professor in Biological Engineering, where he was Head of Department of biological and Chemical Engineering from 2003 to 2008, and Head of doctoral school from 2009 to 2012). Professor Moktar Hamdi is also director of research laboratory in Microbial ecology and technology in the university of Carthage since 2004. Dr. Hamdi has published over 180 papers, over 10 patents and some chapters in several books. He is a scientific advisory boards and he has served on many editorial boards of many indexed scientific journals.
Statement of the Problem: The nuclear power which is an important technology option in climate change mitigation strategies must be strengthened by innovation to maintain an acceptable level of performance and security. Commercialized nuclear power plants which continue in mitigation of climate change require innovation in term of performance, cost, safety and extension of the useful life to improve reductions of GHG emissions. Through human creativity and critical thinking, sustainable innovative solutions for cleaner and cheaper nuclear energy will be provided thanks to multilateral collaborations and open innovation. Ecosystems use sustainable energy from sun that leads to biofuels energy. Biorefinery is defined as the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy (Fig 1).
Findings: By analogy to biorefinery, we suggest the new concept of nuclearrefinery (nucleaRefinery) which is a facility that integrates nuclear fuels conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and by- or co-products (Fig. 2). Lessons learned from biorefinery concept allowed to identify some opportunities for sustainable innovation through nuclear fuel cycle in order to contribute in mitigation of climate change by:
Maximizing the production of energy contained in the fuel and maximizing the use of produced energy;
Minimizing material loss (by- or co-products) and maximizing the reuse of wastes;
Integration of non-electric applications (cogeneration, desalination…);
The connection to renewable energy and wastes treatment
Use nuclear energy in agrofood development (water, processing…).
The new concept of nuclearrefinery and lessons learned from biorefinery concept should allow overseeing challenges of the sustainability of nuclear power plant and increasing its contribution in the mitigation of climate change.
Will be Updated Soon...
Statement of the problem: On December 23, 2015, a well-planned, perfectly-synchronized, brilliantly executed cyber-attack caused a six-hour black-out for hundreds of thousands of customers in and around Ukraine’s capital city of Kiev. It was the first documented case of cyber-intruders bringing down a power grid.
While there are no known cases of cyber-terrorism causing power outages in other countries, experts agree that absolute cyber-security is unattainable. The attack methodology, tactics, techniques, and procedures that were successfully deployed in Ukraine could be deployed against infrastructures in the U.S. and around the world.
Methodology and theoretical orientation: The presentation analyzes policy changes to increase the resiliency of electric power grids and mitigate the potential consequences of cyber-attacks.
Conclusion and significance: Small power production resources originally designed to lower the costs of energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions also could improve public access to power during cyber-attacks or other emergencies. The resilience and security of supply implications have become increasingly relevant in evaluating the costs and benefits of distributed energy resources and microgrids.
University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
Dr. Jiménez has a vastexperience in investigating the gas-phase chemistry of primary and secondary pollutants and their atmospheric implications. Her research is focused on the kinetics of different removal processes in the troposphere (reaction with tropospheric oxidants and UV photolysis) together with the formation of secondary pollutants (gaseous and particulate matter). The aim of her research is then the evaluation of the impact of potential CFC replacements, such as fluorinated and perfluorinatedcompounds on air pollution and their contribution on the global warming. A great list of fluorinated compounds has been investigatedup to now. The daytime chemistryof these CFC substitutesis mostly dominated by gas-phase reaction with OH radicals. The obtained OH-rate coefficients for can be included in the chemistry modules of atmospheric models. Dr. Jiménez is also involved in the gas-phase chemistry of interstellar molecules at temperatures down to 110 K (ERC project NANOCOSMOS).
The phase-out of the consumption and production of (stratospheric) ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was completed in 2010, while the scheduled phase-out of most hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is expected by 2030.During the gradual disappearance of HCFCsover the coming decades, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were proposed as long-term replacements in several industrial applications. Despite HFCs are non-depleting ozone substances,most of themare potent greenhouse gases (GHGs) that affect the radiative forcing of climate change. Their strong IR absorption in the atmospheric window and their long atmospheric lifetime result in high global warming potentials (GWPs). To decrease climate forcing,the emissions of high-GWP HFCs have to be reduced and replaced by substances that have low impact on climate. Among these, hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are expected to be good alternatives to HFCs. For instance, CF3(CF2)2CH=CH2 (HFO‑1447fz) is currently being considered as a substitute of HCFC-141b as expansion agent in polyurethane foams. Or CF3CH=CH2 (HFO-1243zf) could replace CF3CH2F (HFC-134a) in air-conditioning units.To assess the environmental impact of the potential widespread use of these potential substitutes, an evaluation of the atmospheric chemistry is needed. Degradation of pollutants in the troposphere is usually initiated by OH radicals(the main diurnal oxidant) and, under certain circumstances,by Cl atoms. In our group, the rate coefficients for the OH and Cl reactions with some HFOs and PFCs have been determined under tropospheric conditions of temperature and pressure. Identification of secondary gaseous products and organic aerosols was alsocarried out simulating a clean and polluted atmosphere.The IR spectra of these species were recorded in order to calculate their radiative efficiency. All these resultsallow the estimation of the atmospheric lifetime, GWP and the photochemical ozone creation potential of the HFC substitute. Therefore,we can predict the impact of future emissions on air quality and global warming.
Tohoku University, Japan
Koki Homma is an agronomist and crop physiologist. He graduated from Kyoto University, Japan, supervised by Prof Horie who simulated rice production under future climate conditions in Asia. One of his major activities is the investigation in farmers’ fields to evaluate production constraints and climate change impacts in Southeast Asia. This work has been conducted by collaboration with hydrologists, Toshio Koike, TetsuOhta and Kumiko Tsujimoto, under the project for “Assessing and integrating climate change impacts into the water resources management plans for Brantas and Musi River Basins” by Japan International Cooperation Agency.
One of the major agricultural production in Indonesia is rice production, on which negative climate change impact is anticipated. To assess the impact, simulating water budget and its effect on rice production is recommended. In this study, we developed a coupling model of hydrology and rice growth, and simulated rice yield under some GCM scenarios. After downscaling and bias-correcting GCMs, a hydrological model, the Water and Energy Budget-based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM), simulated water flow and soil moisture content in total 60,000 km2 of Musi river basin by 500m-mesh. Each mesh was categorized such as rainfed rice, shrub and so on based on governmental land use map. Rice growth and yield was simulated by a model, Simulation Model for Rice Weather Relations for rainfed (SIMRIW-Rainfed) based on the weather and soil moisture by WEB-DHM. Weather data from 1985 to 2012 was used for model calibration and validation as the present climate. The simulated rice yield under present climate was well consistent with the statistical data for rice production. Decrease in rice yield was simulated in rainfed paddy fields due to drought. Rice yield in the future (2050-2065) was slightly increased under GCM scenario gfdl_cm2_0, but largely decreased under gfdl_cm2_1. Shift of rainy season is one of the reasons of large decrease under gfdl_cm2_1, change of planting time and duration is one of adaptive strategies.
University of Bern, Switzerland
Ilaria Espa is a senior research fellow and lecturer at the World Trade Institute (WTI) of the University of Bern and a lecturer at the University of Milan. Formerly awarded a Marie Curie fellowship to conduct her post-doctoral studies at the WTI, she became a Member of the NCCR Programme in ‘Trade Regulation: From Fragmentation to Coherence’ (WP5 on ‘Trade and Climate Change) and the scientific coordinator of the WTI Doctoral Programme. She holds a PhD in International Law and Economics from the Department of Legal Studies of Bocconi University and was a visiting scholar at Columbia Law School in 2012. Her research interests include International Economic Law, Environmental Law and Policy, and Climate, Energy and Natural Resources Law and Policy. Ilariahas consistently published in internationally recognized peer-reviewed journals and she is the author of a monograph on Export Restrictions on Critical Minerals and Metals: Testing the Adequacy of WTO Disciplines (Cambridge University Press, 2015) and the co-author of International Trade in Sustainable Electricity: Regulatory Challenges in International Economic Law (Cambridge University Press, 2017).
This article aims at assessing critically the renewable energy (RE) promotion policies pursued by the European Union (EU) within the context of both its climate policy and Energy Union policy, with a view to identify main strengths and weaknesses and the potential for improvement inherent to the recent proposals for reform launched by the European Commission through the ‘Clean Energy for All’ package. It starts by giving an overview of the main pillars of the Energy Union decarbonisation strategy, focusing on the RE promotion policies undertaken in the power sector. It goes on identifying the main challenges that the development of RE electricity production has posed to both the EU internal market and other decarbonisation policies. It then accordingly examines the main innovations introduced and/or proposed to improve European RE promotion policies and, finally, concludes that they address the most pressing issues experienced by the EU electricity system following rapid RE development in addition to creating an enabling environment for investment in electricity transmission and distribution infrastructures, particularly physical interconnections, which are essential to ensure successful renewable integration.
Lanzhou University, China
Xin Wang has his expertise in the physical and chemical properties of mineral dust aerosols, and the optical properties of the insoluble light-absorbing impurities in seasonal snow based on both field surveys and model simulations. The foundation in this study is based on a new method combining the multi-satellite instruments with the surface observations of dust events is develop in estimating the contribution of anthropogenic dust due to human activities in disturbed soil regions.
The evolution of the spatial-temporal varying trends of dust events shows that the dust event occurrences (DEO) remarkable reduced at the beginning of this century by using an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method over northern China. The results indicate that the steady decreased wind speed on Northern Hemisphere was largely responsible for the recent remarkable decline of DEO, however, the anthropogenic dust due to human activities also play key roles. Despite several attempts has been performed to investigate the climate effects due to anthropogenic dust, large uncertainties were still found due to the multi-satellite retrievals. In this study, a new method combining the multi-satellite instruments with the surface observations of dust events is develop in estimating the contribution of anthropogenic dust due to human activities in disturbed soil regions. Statistically, the column burdens of anthropogenic dust may be increased higher than 82% in the eastern areas caused by heavy local air pollution derived by human activities, but only with a limited effect lower than 15% near the desert regions. However, either way the anthropogenic effects of dust column burden are non-negligible. This study highlights the ability of significantly reducing the large uncertainty in estimating the contribution of anthropogenic dust to total atmospheric dust loadings.
Internanational Ocean & Atmosphere Research Fundation, Taiwan
Nai Kuang Liang has completed his Dr-Ing from Technical University Hannover, Germany. He was the director of Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University. He has published papers in artificial upwelling, typhoon swell prediction, ocean thermal energy conversion and coastal protection. He is now Professor Emeritus of National Taiwan University.
Global warming means the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system. However, most of the increased heat is stored in the ocean. This causes the sea surface temperature to rise, producing extreme weather. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) utilizes the temperature difference between the sea surface water and deep seawater to generate electricity. OTEC requires pumping a large amount of deep seawater, which is clean, cold and rich in nutrients. If the used OTEC seawater, i.e. a mixture of warm and cold seawater, is released to the sea surface, an artificial upwelling is then created. The natural upwelling regions result in high levels of primary productivity and thus fishery production. The upwelling area will also present low sea surface temperature. Hence, large enough artificial upwelling may mitigate global warming. This process takes advantage of ocean thermal energy to generate clean energy, to create fishing grounds and improve climate change. An interdisciplinary research program promoted by the UN will be necessary to achieve this goal.
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Mainly engaged in farmland greenhouse gas emission mechanism and emission reduction countermeasures. Won the 2008 Chinese Academy of Sciences Dean Excellence Award, 2009 Jiangsu Province outstanding doctoral dissertation, the second session of the Chinese soil society outstanding scholar award. Published a monograph (3); published 58 papers, including SCI papers 21, EI papers 1. Commitment and participation: the National Science and Technology Support Program, the National Natural Science Fund Project, the Ministry of Science and Technology International Science and Technology Cooperation Project, the public welfare industry (agriculture) scientific research, the Chinese Academy of Sciences strategic pilot science and technology, soil and agriculture sustainable development national key laboratory youth Research talent projects.
To solve the problem of water shortage, an improved plastic film mulching rice cultivation (PM) has been developed and expanded in recent years in Southwest China. It is a promising alternative to the winter-flooded rice cultivation technology (WF). To explore effects of this technology on CH4 and N2O emissions from winter-flooded paddy fields, a field experiment was conducted in Ziyang, Sichuan Province, China from 2012 to 2015. Meanwhile, the effects of nitrification inhibitors (DCD and CP) were estimated. Results showed that annual CH4 and N2O emissions from winter-flooded paddy fields ranged from 205-738 kg ha-1 and 0.05-1.52 kg N ha-1, respectively. Shifting the fields from WF to PM led to significant reduction 30-76% of CH4 emissions and 24-70% of 100-year GWP (CH4+N2O) though substantial increase of N2O emissions (10-3975%). Decrease in CH4 emissions was ascribed to the reduced CH4 production potential while N2O emissions were increased as a consequence of more suitable soil water content and single basal application of nitrogen fertilizer in plastic film mulching rice fields. Integrated assessments showed that PM relative to WF significantly enhanced the net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB: balance between the economic benefits: yield gains and input costs; and environmental costs: GWP costs), due to the input costs reduced greatly. If WF was all changed to PM in Sichuan Province, China, the mitigation of 0.53-3.89 Tg CO2-eq yr-1 in 100-year GWP (CH4+N2O) and the increase of 1.60-3.32 billion CNY yr−1 in NEEB might be achieved. Applying CP under PM conditions reduced 1-10%CH4emissions and 9-26%N2O emissions and increased 1-5% grain yields, thus mitigating 6-10% 100-year GWP (CH4+N2O) and enhancing 29% NEEB. The results demonstrate that PM and PM+CP increased economic incomes and decreased environmental costs of the fields, which would be the effective management strategies in the regions where are water scarcity.
University of Bologna, Italy
Cornelius is a doctorate graduate from University of Cadiz (Spain) and University of Bologna (Italy) and expert in climate change and freshwater resources. He has experience in research and management projects and working in multicultural organisations. He is the author of three articles in scientific peer-reviewed journals, credited as first author of two of them, with further author credits in three UNEP publications. He is currently teaching in several Kenyan universities and is an Associate at the Institute of Climate Change and Adaptation of the University of Nairobi.
Demand for freshwater is rising with factors, such as population growth, land use change and climate variations, rendering water availability in the future uncertain. Groundwater resources are being increasingly exploited to meet this growing demand. The aim of this study is to identify the influence of population growth induced by land use change and climate change on the future state of freshwater resources of Lamu Island in Kenya where a major port facility is under construction. The results of this study show that the “no industrial development” population scenario (assuming the port was not constructed) would be expected to reach ~50,000 people by 2050, while the projected population upon completion is expected to reach 1.25 million in the same year when the Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport Corridor Program (LAPSSET) port reaches its full cargo-handling capacity. The groundwater abstraction in 2009 was 0.06 m3 daily per capita, while the demand is expected to raise to 0.1 m3 by 2050 according to the “LAPSSET development” projection. The modelling results show that the Shela aquifer in Lamu, which is the main source of water on the island, will not experience stress by 2065 for the “no industrial development” population scenario, whereas for the “LAPSSET development projection” population scenario, it will occur sooner (between 2020 and 2028). The modelling results show that the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) climate change scenarios will have a smaller impact on the effective water volume reserves than Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) for the “no industrial development”, while the impact is expected to be similar for the “LAPSSET development”, suggesting that population growth exacerbated by land use change will be a more significant driving force than climate change in affecting freshwater availability.
University of El Rosario, Colombia
Food, Environmental and sanitary engineer, Master in administration and Master executive in direction and management and environmental Systems, PhD in economics, Auditor with experience in advisory services, consulting, teaching researchers in areas such as the environment, environment quality, health and security management and audit systems, implementation and auditing of management integral systems (HSEQ) in different factories and companies of manufacturers and services. With experience in research on energy economics, energy efficiency, climate change, empirical analysis, social responsibility and industrial productivity in developed and developing countries.
Nowadays, cities account for half the world’s population and two thirds of global energy demand, and, in the coming decades, it is estimate d that energy use and associated levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will continue unabated in cities especially in developing countries. Therefore, the urban development agenda is fundamental to the improvement and mainstreaming of energy efficient and lowcarbon urban pathways that curtail climate and environmental impacts without hampering urban development and growth. Thus, a better evaluation of urban energy use is necessary for decision makers at various levels to address energy security, climate change mitigation, and local pollution abatement. Therefore, this paper measures and evaluates energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Colombian cities as a case study of a developing country with the aim to set appropriate policies and strategies without adverse effects and impacts on economic growth and development. This study applies Data Envelopment Analysis and traditional indicators to measure energy efficiency in Colombian cities. As a complementary step, data panel techniques have been used in order to determine variables that influence the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. Results from DEA suggest that Colombian cities have an excellent potential to improve energy use and reduce CO2 emissions, and several cities have experienced gains in productivity, growth in efficiency, and improvements in innovation through new technologies. Second stage panel data techniques show that energy prices, economic conditions and production structure have effects in the trends of energy use and CO2 emissions. These results indicate several policy implications with regard to energy conservation, efficient use of energy, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the importance to increase research on energy patterns in the context of cities, especially those of developing countries.
CEO Aesop Energy LLC & Fuel-Free Aviation, Inc., USA
Richard is Chief Executive of Aesop Energy and Fuel-Free Aviation. Established International Business & Technologies GP to finance and develop commercial products and emerging technologies, and chaired two United Nations plenary sessions on the impact of emerging technologies. He wrote “Financial Gladiator” (on investor and business due diligence practices), and has served on boards of several private companies, non-profit organizations, and government entities. Richard conducted studies and seminars for power production and water desalinization, and served as Supervisor of Operations for the US Chemical Industries Emergency Program (CHEMTREC); Member of the Board for the World Safety Organization; six years as WSO Liaison to the UN, New York City, Geneva and the United Nations Environmental Program. He holds a BS and MS in Environmental Studies. In 1991 he was selected World Safety Person of the Year.
Emerging technologies around the world are presenting revolutionary, clean, effective, and economically viable alternatives to existing mobile and fixed power generating equipment. Many technologies are expected to rapidly supersede mankind’s reliance on combustion or nuclear fission for locomotion, transportation, or power generation. The amazing energy breakthroughs coming to market will initially enable resilient widely dispersed power sources to replace fuel burning engines and supplement electric power grids. The potential long-term applications and benefits to society and our planetary ecosystem are astounding. The continued progression of our changing climate requires the synergistic development of renewables through these emerging technologies; and rapidly increasing the adoption and distribution of these new energy resources is imparative. Every means possible must be utilized to develop and implement point of service and micro-grid technologies bringing greatly reduced carbon and carbon-free energy to all populations through a much improved distribution system. In the developed and the developing world, utilities and governments must accommodate growing electricity demand on a warming planet only through the use of these carbon free technologies supplying more electricity to these populations. The technologies must not only bring real reduction in green-house gas emissions but in addition, we must use the carbon free technologies to achieve massive decarbonization. With the level of CO2 in our atmosphere now well above the 400 PPM threshold, self reinforcing feedback loops will quickly render any mediocre efforts pointless. The threat of a massive burst of methane from the Arctic Ocean will certainly compound the problem faced by our planetary inhabitants. Only through the utilization of emission free, limited carbon intensive technologies and a massive research and implementation effort will an effective challenge be made to our rapidly changing atmosphere. AESOP Energy, LLC is a technology development firm located in Sebastopol, California.
Chinese Academy of Science, China
Litao Liu is an Assistant Researcher in Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research at Chinese Academy of Science. Dr. Liu’s research interests lie in the field of natural resources for sustainable development and industrial ecology. The overarching objective of our research is to understand the interaction among natural resources system, industry system and ecology environment. Our research consist of two core elements:1)supply security of natural resources at the regional, national and global level, and 2) environmental pressure of natural resources consumption. Through externally founded projects, our research ambition is to provided an understanding of driving forces of natural resources security and environmental pressure and to assist policy maker in designing mitigation policy that can ensure natural resource supply security and reduce environmental pressure.
Statement of the Problem: China is the largest cement producer and consumer accounting for almost about 60% worlds cement production and consumption. China’s unprecedented change offers a unique chance for revealing the relationship between urbanization and the in-use cement stocks. Researchers have observed that Inverted-U shaped nexus between cement consumption and urbanization, as well as GDP per capita; rapid urbanization is creating the conditions for widespread infrastructure and in-use cement stocks accumulation, but shows an uneven distribution. However, these regional heterogeneities from spatial perspective have not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to show the spatio-temporal pattern of the in-use cement stocks and reveal underling socioeconomic drivers during 1950-2012. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Dynamic material flow analysis and ArcGIS software were utilized for depicting the spatio-temporal pattern of cement flow and in-use stocks. We analyze China’s in-use stocks from both producer and consumer perspectives based on multilevel data including factory-level field investigating data, industry level data, provincial and national level data. Findings: A huge discrepancy in in-use cement stock accumulation remains among different regions of China. Urbanization rate, population, GDP per capita, consumption behavior and building lifetime are the major determinants of cement in-use stock. Total production capacity, energy consumption and emissions will decline dramatically and mitigation policies will change remarkably under in-use cement stock saturation situation. Conclusion & Significance: The regional heterogeneities of in-use cement stock accumulation over the coming decades will be critical for the cement industry to reach deeper energy saving and emission cuts. Recommendations are made for policy-maker to design comprehensive policies that would help coordinating cement in-use stock accumulation and urbanization in different region of China.