Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th World Conference on Climate Change Rome, Italy.

Day 2 :

Climate Change 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Alex Ellery photo
Biography:

Prof Alex Ellery is a Canada Research Chair in Space Robotics & Space Technology at the Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department of Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. He has a BSc in Physics, an MSc in Astronomy and a PhD in Astronautics & Space Engineering from the UK and is a graduate of the International Space University. He was awarded the George Stephenson medal by the IMechE in 2005 and delivered a prize winning paper at the World Energy Congress Istanbul in 2016 His expertise is in the application of robotics and artificial intelligence to space exploration including the exploitation of planetary in-situ resources and the application of 3D printing technology to extraterrestrial material. His goal is to develop this state-of-the-art technology to realise self-replicating machines on the Moon in order to implement innovative global climate change mitigation solutions.

Abstract:

Effects of climate change are increasing year-on-year, yet greenhouse emissions from fossil fuel combustion continue to accumulate in the atmosphere. Furthermore, there is natural inertia in the climatic system that dictates that the full effects of current greenhouse gases have yet to be realized. Renewable energy sources, although growing in their deployment, have capacity limits in an increasingly energy-hungry world, particularly with regard to supplying baseload power. There are thus two aspects to our current geophysiological ailment – aetiology (fossil fuel combustion) and symptoms (temperature). These problems can be solved by implementing: (i) solar power satellites (SPS) to supply solar energy to Earth at 230 W/m2 from space 24 x 7 (antibiotic), and (ii) space solar shields (SSS) emplaced at the Sun-Earth L1 libration point to reduce solar flux to Earth by 1.8% (analgesic). The chief hindrance has been technological capabilities and the astronomical cost imposed by launch from Earth at $20,000/kg. Both problems can be alleviated through self-replication technology, an emerging capability based on robotic machines that can extract raw materials, process it and manufacture it into copies of its own parts. It has been determined that extraction of lunar materials required for building robotic machines is feasible. Furthermore, 3D printing of metals, plastics and ceramics has been developing rapidly. We have been developing technology for 3D printing electric motors and neural network-based circuitry from lunar material as the core components of a self-replicating machine and, indeed, any robot machine. From such universal constructing machines on the Moon, SPS and SSS can be manufactured in vast numbers enabled through self-replication. SPS in conjunction with SSS offer the most effective and robust solution to climate change. The high cost problem may be effectively eliminated in comparison with alternatives through the use of self-replicating machines – such machines are viable and imminent.

Climate Change 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Don Elzer photo
Biography:

Don Elzer is a community economic development specialist and founder of the Wildcraft Forest School. He is a wildcrafter and field biosemiotician from British Columbia. He is best known for his investigative research and ongoing work with rural communities and First Nations. With over 20 years of field experience working with small and medium sized enterprises and communities he has acquired key knowledge about current development issues impacting our changing planet. As a consultant with the Canadian Tourism Commission he developed one of the first eco-tourism strategies in British Columbia, as well as the first creative sector development strategy in the Okanagan Valley. His role has been assessing, problem-solving and identifying emerging opportunities and leadership methods within such scenarios as industry closures, First Nations self-government, eroding community infrastructure and impacts due to climate change, so that a more creative and diverse economy can be realized and sustained based on stewardship.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem:

Climate change and certain industrial activities are impacting biodiversity in rural and remote areas. Wild species in “local” ecosystems are transitioning to different locations. A lack of capacity for monitoring leaves these issues un-noticed. Because of the vastness of this problem, governments and institutions are unable to deliver assistance. Most often, people connected to these remote landscapes are observing these changes, but they may not have the organizational capacity to problem-solve. Often these wild edge and riparian areas are within an industrialized farming, logging or plantation interface which is also stressed. Shifts in supply and demand in the resource, food and medicine marketplaces are driving these operations to expand into wildlands placing habitat at risk; at the same time local “food security efforts” compete for these same lands.

Purpose and Methods:

The Wildcraft Forest School has applied experimental research within many fieldworking nodes in an effort to improve capacity for restoration and local problem-solving while establishing long-term working relationships. Methods are also developed that seek to transition certain market demand issues which place dangerous pressures on wild ecosystems and local food and medicine security.

Results and Findings:

A narrative was developed that links educated urban professionals with a “spiritual” connection to ecosystems that includes ethics and stewardship. This incentive framework creates meaning and purpose which drives an individual commitment towards stewardship of a place. The applied fieldwork has helped to transition and support species impacted by climate change and negative industrial impacts as well as to create new regenerative models for the harvesting of wild foods and medicines.

Conclusions:

Participation continues to grow and to be engaged in providing support for restoration and advocacy work that adds capacity to local efforts. The narrative that provides the incentive continues to attract urban professionals who return home and engage with advocacy efforts while utilizing their extension work experience to support career objectives. Opportunities continue to emerge for replicating this model so that it can be applied in other regions and to improve the partnerships with scientific and monitoring agencies.

Climate Change 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Guy M Robinson photo
Biography:

Guy M Robinson is a geographer with over forty years of experience in research on environmental management issues. He has worked extensively in the UK, Europe, Australasia and North America on pro-environmental behaviour by farmers and environmentally-friendly actions by householders. With a focus on policy dimensions in this work, he has been editor of the international journal, Land Use Policy, for the last decade. Currently based at the University of Adelaide, he has held positions at the Universities of Oxford, Edinburgh, Kingston London and South Australia. He is a Guest Professor in the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Author of over 200 academic papers, he has written several major books including ‘Conflict and Change in the Countryside’, ‘Methods and Techniques in Human Geography’, ‘Agricultural Geographies’, ‘Sustainable Rural Systems’ and ‘Handbook on the Globalisation of Agriculture’. He is currently leading an Australian Research Council-funded project on ‘Bushfires and Biodiversity’.

Abstract:

This paper reports on results from two major research projects conducted in South Australia. The first investigates adaptation to climate change in two of the state’s major grain and sheep farming regions, using semi-structured interviews. The second uses a postal questionnaire and internet-based surveys of residents in the peri-urban fringes of Adelaide, the state capital, to examine knowledge of and attitudes to climate change and resulting adaptations, especially in the context of increasing risk of wildfires.

 

The research on climate change adaptation in agriculture focused on formal institutions (e.g. government agencies) and communities of practice (e.g. farm systems groups). Both groups noted that farmers autonomously adapt to various risks, including those induced by climate variability; however, the types and levels of adaptation varied among individuals because of barriers to adaptation. The lack of communication and engagement processes established between formal institutions and communities of practice was one major barrier. The paper presents and discusses a model for transferring knowledge and information on climate change among formal institutions, communities of practice, trusted individual advisors and farmers, and for supporting the co-management of climate change across multiple groups in rural areas in Australia and elsewhere.

 

The research in the peri-urban fringe revealed that actions taken by individuals to mitigate climate change were linked to the nature of environmental values held (or their ecological worldview) and place attachment. Individuals with a strong place attachment to the study area (the Adelaide Hills) who possessed knowledge of and/or beliefs in climate change were most likely to take mitigating actions. This was also linked to previous experience of major risk from wildfires. A model developed from this study is proposed as part of a process to develop effective climate change policy and educational strategies.

Climate Change 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Inga Carlman photo
Biography:

Inga Carlman has worked both as a consultant and as a university lecturer and researcher. She has her expertise in implementing environmental goals, mostly within the fields of renewable energy sources, Environmental Impact Assessment, Public Participation and Environmental Quality standards. Lately her interests has moved toward models/systems in relation to steering instruments. Her work with the nuclear waste problem has given her a deep insights in stakeholders’ perspective, long time problems, and law.

Erik Grönlundis a senior researcher in the interdisciplinary research group of Ecotechnology and Environmental Science at Mid Sweden University. His research is mainly connected to Sustainability Assessment Methods, and modeling of the environmental-economic interface e.g. in watersheds related to the European Union Water Framework Directive. He has an interdisciplinary interest and background in Systems Ecology, Ecological Engineering, Ecophilosophy, Journalism, and Human Ecology.

Abstract:

The negative effects of a changing climate have become increasingly evident along with the more detailed facts due to ongoing research. In spite of a number of societal steering tools (information, economic and legal) mankind seems to a great deal at loss on how to tackle the problems so as to get substantial results.

Vital parts embraced in this problem-picture are e.g.  a) the competing paradigms and underlying theoretical assumptions b) the credibility and accuracy of different models and method,  c) how to communicate the severeness of the problem to politicians, authorities, industry and the public at large, d) to adapt social steering-tools so as to e.g. make the importance of environmental quality standards understandable and hence change human conduct (Figure 1).

This paper analyses a number of models (both natural scientific and social scientific ones) and discusses their benefits and shortcomings. It furthermore brings up a) the role of public administrators to meet modern demands to take responsibility for future generations, and b) principles industry/business apply to stall proposed suggestions to tackle climate change.

Finally the paper proposes a number of suggestions on how to minimize barriers and to “level the path” for the generations to come.

Climate Change 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Gualtiero Valeri photo
Biography:

Gualtiero A.N. Valeri borned in Padua, year 1960. Live in Switzerland and in Ecuador. Studied industrial chemistry and chemical engineering in Padua. Consultant in the applied sciences, R&D. Professor of Industrial Chemistry at St. Rita University of Rome. Member of Tiberina Pontificial Academy. Vicepresident of scientific committeè of Meditarranean Parliament. President of Montevenda Engineering International Association. “J. Benveniste” award for the Biophysic, year 2011. Special award for the diffusion of scientific culture from Center “Culturambiente” of Rome and the from “Centre for Peace” of Vatican City, year 2013. “Hyppocrates” award for the Medicine year 2015.

Abstract:

In the overall framework of the causes and problems related to climate change, which proceeds partly for natural causes, partly by human action, an important factor, mentioned by the author in the past, is connected to the change of state of soils and to land use in a great part of the world.

Currently, we have the problem of vast suburban areas with pollued soils by past industrial activities, now abandoned. The extension of these areas is often remarkable.

By means of some arboreous species is possible breaking down, significantly, the atmospheric pollution, and simultaneously remove the pollution from soils.

The possibility of forest reuse of these areas, especially trying to connect them for creating a series of wooded zones around the cities, would lead to a significant number of advantages:

  1. reducing air pollutants coming from the city itself, with partial removal of greenhouse gases and improve of air quality, even with the reduction of cancer, respiratory and heart disease;
  2. soil decontamination, for phytoextraction of inorganic and hidrocarbon contaminants and destruction of organic pollutants by microbiological activity;
  3. improvement of the climate, especially in warm weather;
  4. reduction of noise coming from traffic roads and railway lines;
  5. creation of green spaces with recovery of the liveability of cities themselves.

Currently 54% of the world's population is urban; alone in Europe (73% urban population) the recoverable areas may be about 30'000'000 ha. Given that an important part of atmospheric contamination and greenhouse gases come from urban areas, they would be intercepted at the origin with the described interventions.

Compared to other cases of intervention for recovery of soils, forestry and agriculture, these would be implemented in less time, less investment and immediately perceptible benefits, being areas where already exists consciousness of urgent need of requalification and urban replanning.

Climate Change 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Christopher Bryant photo
Biography:

Christopher Bryant has been professor in Geography at the University of Waterloo (20 years) and at the Université de Montréal (24 years); he is currently Adjunct Professor at the Université de Montréal and in the School of Environmental Design and Rural Development, University of Guelph. He is one of the world’s leading researchers in agriculture around cities (50 years of research), and he has also spent 26 years of research in the adaptation of agriculture to climate change and variability, as well as 30 years in research in local community development. He is currently in the top 7 % of researchers in the Research Gate network.

Abstract:

While considerable research has been undertaken on the adaptation of agriculture to climate change and variability (CCV) over the last 25 years, little emphasis has been placed on: 1) how agricultural adaptation to CCV has also to be set in the context of multiple other stressors facing agriculture such as increasing demands for agriculture to become sustainable from the environmental and human health perspective and from the perspective of continued urbanization pressures on agricultural lands and activities around cities; and 2) how different forms of planning involving agriculture need to be integrated if agricultural lands and activities are to be successfully maintained to be able to contribute to Food Security. This presentation reviews key elements of research into agricultural adaptation to CCV and how these can be recognized in the integration of land use planning AND strategic development planning for agricultural development. Examples coming from North America and Western Europe will be used to demonstrate what types of progress are needed in planning for agricultural land and activities especially near cities to ensure that agricultural development can contribute substantially more to Food Security than it has in the past.

  • Track: Global Warming Effects & Causes
    Track: Climate Change: Biodiversity Scenarios
    Track: Oceans & Climate Change
    Track: Effective Adaptation
    Track: Climate Hazards
Location: Room 1

Session Introduction

Wm Ye

Tongji University, China

Title: Development of drying cracknetworks in slurries with different thicknesses
Speaker
Biography:

Wm Ye has his expertise on investigation on engineering behaviour of unsaturated soil and prevention of geological disasters. In the last 15 years, he focused on experimental exploration to the hydro-thermo-mechanical properties of densely compacted bentonite for using as buffer/backfill materials for deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Properties of geo-materials related to geological storage of CO2,as well as conservation of earthen heritages under extremely dry climate are also investigated.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: As one of the dominant climate-related hazardsall over the world, drought occurs more frequently and widely in recent years.Especially in the field of geotechnical engineering, such extreme condition could trigger intense shrinkage cracking of soils,leading toirrecoverable damageforbothmodern infrastructures and ancient earthen heritages. For a drying soil, previous researchers mainly focused onfinal morphology of crack pattern influenced byambient temperature, RH and mineral types etc.However,the wholeprocess of crack network development is far less investigated,particularly in a quantitative way.

Material & Methodology: Slurries with different initial thicknesses (2, 5, 10 and 15mm)were preparedin circular containers, from low-plastic silty clay with water content 45%.Specimens were exposed to air drying in a laboratory undercontrolledtemperature 20±1oC. During desiccation, the evolving crack networks were recorded regularly using a digital camera and further analyzed resorting to image processing technique. Three geometric parameters, i.e. CIF(crack intensity factor), total crack length (L) and average crack width (W), were quantified.

Findings:As water content dropped below the liquid limit30%, cracks started to initiate on soil surface. Both L and W increased gradually in the following stage, however, the evolution trend was different among specimens.For 15mm slurry,Lstopped increasing at air-entry water content (22%),while W kept growing until shrinkage limit (16%) was reached.In comparison,2mm slurry was dominated by elongationof cracks, accompanied by only slight widening.In addition, CIF increased from 5.26% to 10.32% as thickness increased. Crack patterncut extensively by small and narrow cracks transformed gradually into less fragmented one.

Conclusion & Significance: Thicknesshad a great impact onboth development and final morphology of drying cracking networks. This providessome useful information for understanding the mechanisms in practical issues.

Speaker
Biography:

Panin Alexander is a senior lecturer at the Department of Microbiology of the Military Medical Academy and an expert in medical support for the preparation of expeditions to the Arctic Antarctic by the Research Institute of St. Petersburg. Participant 50 and 56 Russian Antarctic Expeditions. I prepare sanitary passports for coastal stations and field bases. I monitor the quality of compliance with sanitary and anti-epidemic (preventive) measures of facilities with instructions for eliminating shortcomings. I investigate psychrophils – bacteria living at low temperatures under extreme polar conditions, species with medical significance. The experience gained in the Antarctic is used in the Arctic.

Abstract:

Microorganisms are clearly responding to climate changes. Microbial species can be indicators of anthropogenic influence on polar ecosystems. Global climate changes may also affect the composition and structure of microbial communities in the Antarctic. Microbiological monitoring (MM) is very important for establishment of pathogens transmission as well as the epidemiological situation on the polar stations area. The aim of this work was to study the microbial biocenosis of Antarctica and to show the role of MMas a predictor of the risks associated with global climate change.

Systematic study of the microbiota in the Antarctic ecosystems held since 1996 (42-th season work of RAE). These works were accompanied by bacteriological and sanitary mycological examination of water, soil, the study of flora and fauna in the vicinity of objects RAE and the surrounding areas. One of the important tasks was to identify possible sources of accumulation of Yersinia and other pathogens around polar stations. The main feature of this work was the annual sampling from the same habitat allowing study dynamics of the microbiota on the polar stations area as well as natural ecosystems. Wide range of bacteriological and mycological methods of research and identification of microorganisms including molecular methods were used.

As result of microbiological monitoring in Antarctic coastal areas around RAE objects it was revealed that the number of bacteria in preliminary Antarctic soil increased in 1.5-3 times for last years. Many species of opportunistic bacteria and micromycetes were found in observed territory. Variety of bacteria and fungi in the areas of anthropogenic pollution was significantly higher than in natural ecosystems. These works continued into subsequent Antarctic expeditions. At the moment, the priorities of our studies are inclined to the Arctic regions of the RF. The results obtained are processed and require detailed analysis.

It is important to conduct the regular monitoring of birds inhabiting on the territories surrounding the polar stations for development of preventive and anti-epidemic measures. The results of these studies contribute to establish risks predictors of the global climate change, possibility of the emergence of zoonotic and anthroponotic diseases. These studies form the basis of the concept of "polar epidemiology" with scientific substantiation of preventive and anti-epidemic measures.Thetopicofclimateresearchisveryrelevantforthebiologicalandmedicalcommunity. It is necessary to predict and respond to climate challenges in a timely manner, or to create them better for humanity.

Speaker
Biography:

Addisalem Bitew Mitiku has completed her PhD in Geohydromodelling from University of Kiel at Institute of Geosciences and her MSc in Hydroinformatics and Water Management from EuroAquea joint European masters programme. She has been working as lecturer at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia and as a researcher at University of Kiel, Germany. Her research interest includes Computational Hydraulics, Hydroinformatics, Hydrogeology, Climate change and Geo-Storage.

Abstract:

It is a requirement for the implementation of the CO2 - geostorage technology that the long-term fate  of  injected CO2 into the subsurface is understood. Dissolution trapping is known as a long-term process that able to reduce the leakage risk of the gas phase of CO2 from a reservoir. This study, therefore, examines the influence of convective flow driven by density differences on the dissolution of gaseous CO2 into the highly saline formation fluid. The characteristic of a potential anticline reservoir located in the North German sedimentary basin is used as a case study. Numerical scenario simulations conducted for the 2D cross section of the reservoir by accounting the dissolution of CO2 and further by accounting the       geochemical   reactions         (i.e.      mineral dissolution/precipitation) effects. It is observed that in both scenarios the density of formation fluid increases and results convective flow. In the first scenario, the amounts of CO2 dissolved in the reservoir were doubled due to convective mixing process. When both dissolution and geochemical reaction effects are considered, the amount of dissolved CO2 increased by 116 % compared to the model results without free-convection. The convective mixing was also faster in early time when geochemical reaction effects were included.  In both scenarios, the results show that the falling of the saturated brine continues until it reaches to the bottom of the anticline, where it further moves towards to the flank.

Speaker
Biography:

Eiji Komatsu is a Senior Researcher at the Centre for Environmental Law, Meiji University, Japan.He graduated with a PhD in field of Environmental Science from the University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, and has experience of regulatoryscience as NIES fellow in National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. This study is an importantnationally funded project which is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1603) of the Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency.

Abstract:

The central aim of the Paris Agreement has been to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by restricting the rise in global temperature in this century to less than 2 °C over pre-industrial levels. To achieve this target, an ambitious carbon capture and storage (CCS) growth path will be required, with many projects needed globally by 2050 (Beck et al 2011).

Asia is one of the few regions that has an increasing proportion of coal in its primary energy mix until the year 2040 (IEA, 2014). To limit the resulting increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, development of a policy strategy on CCS, based on specifications for coal storage sites and the regional energy mix, is strongly required. However, most Asian countries, including Japan, have not yet fulfilled this requirement.

Ingelson et al (2010) focused on the most serious risks associated with CO2 injection and long-term storage, particularly the risk of leakage, which refers to the possibility of CO2 escaping from the storage site. Several analyses have acknowledged that these potential risks cannot be managed without clarification of responsibility for maintenance, monitoring, and leakage prevention in CO2 storage at the closure of the site as well as post-closure (Finch et al 2009).

This paper examines the legal and socio-economic aspects of CCS technologies through a comparative study of the current law and policies of Japan and countries that have developed and an analysis of economic models of CCS lifecycle. This paper also proposes a comprehensive policy strategy for commercial CCS deployment, while addressing issues associated with ensuring effective long-term stewardship of CO2 storage sites, including those related to the protection of public health, safety, and the environment. Finally, the paper discusses the pathways to deep decarbonization using large-scale CCS based on the proposed policy strategy.

Speaker
Biography:

Qian has presented an approach, decomposing the atmospheric variable into temporal climatology and anomaly. The approach helps forecasters understand weather, climate, and general circulation as well as their anomalies. It confirms that the Arctic cell is directly linked to the warming in the high latitudes. Qian has proposed the anomaly-based synoptic chart that can locate weather extremes. Qian has developed an optimal-level dynamical model which can predict most unusual tropical cyclone tracks. Qian has defined the global monsoon domain as the regions where the difference of two pentad mean precipitation rates exceeds 4 mm day−1, which is also influenced by the low-level prevailing wind reversal associated with the cross-equatorial flow.

Abstract:

The study of general circulation has a long history since Halley (1686) and Hadley (1735) to Maury (1855) and Ferrel (1856), from the single-cell model, the two-cell model, and to the three-cell model. In 1921, V. Bjerknes proposed the four-cell model based on his theoretical speculation. Using four sets of reanalysis products and a climate model simulation, the four-cell model has been confirmed through zonally averaged calculation from basic atmospheric variables. The fourth cell located over the two polar areas is respectively named as the Arctic cell in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Antarctic cell in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). The Hadley, Ferrel, Polar, and Arctic/Antarctic cells exist in each hemisphere but their intensities vary from day to day and from month to month.

  In the NH, the strengthening and broadening trends of the Hadley cell have been revealed, while the existence of the Arctic cell has also been confirmed in previous studies (Qian et al., 2015a,b; 2016a,b). Qian et al. (2016b) and Qian (2017) extended previous strengthening trend analysis of the Hadley cell to the Polar and Arctic cells in the NH and explored their climate influences. The results showed that the Polar cell experienced an abrupt change from a slow to a rapid strengthening trend in 1989, while the Arctic cell showed an insignificant strengthening trend and a significant weakening trend successively. The strengthening subsidence associated with the Polar and Arctic cells can partly explain the warming surface air temperature (SAT) and declining sea ice concentration (SIC) in the NH, through the increasing tropospheric height and temperature trends.

Speaker
Biography:

Glen Gawarkiewicz is a Senior Scientist in the Physical Oceanography Department of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.  He is a sea-going oceanographer whose research interests include shelfbreak exchange processes, coastal ocean circulation, coastal ocean observatories, and inter-disciplinary science in the coastal ocean.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: There has been increasing attention on changes in the circulation and ecosystems of continental shelves in various regions of the world.  A region that is changing rapidly is the Middle Atlantic Bight of the northeastern U.S., where a recent warming trend has been identified and there have been significant impacts on the seasonal movements and spatial distributions of fish.  An important question is what types of forcing result in warming events, specifically whether atmospheric forcing via Jet Stream motions or offshore forcing via Gulf Stream interactions have primarily caused large temperature anomalies.

Methodology and Theoretical Orientation:  Recent observations have been used to determine the warming trend of temperature over the continental shelf off New Jersey over a 37 year period.  The extreme warming event in 2012 has been investigated using both observations and numerical models of ocean circulation.  Data collected by fishermen in early 2017 show Gulf Stream water extending across much of the continental shelf.

Findings:  Average shelf-wide temperature has been increasing off New Jersey in recent decades although with significant interannual variability.  The more recent trend from 2003-2013 is much larger than the trend from 1977-2013.  It appears that warm water is encroaching more frequently from the edge of the continental shelf, indicating more influence from Gulf Stream forcing.  The extreme warming in 2012 resulted from a northward shift in the position of the Jet Stream that reduced cooling of the coastal ocean by 50 per cent during the winter.  During early 2017, warm Gulf Stream water extended across much of the continental shelf south of New England resulting in warm anomalies of 5-6 Deg. C.

Conclusions and Significance:  Recent warming has had significant impacts on the continental shelf ecosystem and commercial fisheries. 

More observations are needed to establish causes and processes affected by this warming.  Coastal ocean observatories will be helpful in this regard.

Speaker
Biography:

Ranhao Sun is a Ph.D. from University of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2008. He is an associate professor at the Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, ChineseAcademy of Sciences (RCEES – CAS). His main areas of expertise are landscape ecology,physical geography, and geographic information systems. His current studiesfocus on two fields: (1) urban heat island effects in large cities related to landscapedesign and planning; and (2) ecosystemservices evaluation and modeling using GISand remote sensing technologies.

Abstract:

Climate change adaptation in urban areas is among the biggest challenges humanity faces due to the combined effects of urban heating and global warming. The variability of urban heat islands (UHI) is known to influence the effectiveness of climate adaptation strategies, but current understanding of urban climate variability is still limited. Here, we quantify the diurnal and seasonal variabilities of surface UHIs in 245 Chinese cities that vary in population and physical size, and examine their relationships with the underlying drivers. We found that local background climate, urban green spaces, and local anthropogenic heat emissions can explain 32-39%, 3-11%, and 4-12% of the diurnal UHI variability, respectively. These three variables also account for 17%, 7%, and 22% of the summer-winter UHI variability during the daytime, and 29%, 4%, and 26% during the nighttime, respectively. Our research suggests that the improvement of urban climate-change adaptation necessitates the local “climate-smart” strategies, reduction in local anthropogenic heat emissions, and rational use of green planning for sustainable urban development.

Speaker
Biography:

Kashmira Pawaskar is a post graduate student in Centre for Climate Change and Sustainability Studies, School of Habitat Studies at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India. She is interested in the energy policy analysis and climate change research. She has completed her basic education in mass communication and she is also interested in further researching on climate communication in international and national negotiations.

Abstract:

The historic Paris agreement was based on the strong commitment of 196 member countries to mitigate emissions. These human induced emissions are on rise due various reasons including electricity production, transportation, manufacturing and production of goods and services, and agriculture. Hence, a deeper understanding of the driving forces pertaining to energy related CO2 emissions is very important in formulating future mitigation policies. This paper aims at identifying these factors that have influenced the changes in the level of CO2 emissions over last two decades. By means of decomposition method, the observed changes are analysed in terms of four factors affecting the emissions - energy intensity, structural changes, emission intensity and economic activities. One of the popular Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA) method Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) is used, to decompose factors of

 

 

emission, due to its theoretical foundation, adaptability, ease of use and results interpretation with zero residual. The paper aims to study major economic sectors of four highest CO2 emitting developed countries (U.S, Japan, Germany and Canada) as well as four highest CO2 emitting developing countries (China, India, Russia, South Korea). The analysis is to be based on empirical data ranging from 1990-2014, which will decompose emissions based on sectoral (industry, services and agriculture) trends. It will further develop an understanding of how these changes in drivers, influencing emissions, will impact the mitigation targets committed by countries in their respective INDCs.

Pramod Singh

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra

Title: Impact of climate change on milk economy in India
Speaker
Biography:

Pramod K. Singh is a professor at the Institute of Rural Management Anand. Dr Singh has over 18 years of teaching and research experiences in the areas of governance and management of natural resources, climate change adaptation, vulnerability and resilience, disaster risk reduction, livelihoods, environment and development planning, and geoinformatics for development. He has completed over 30 research studies funded by central as well as state government departments and international development organizations. He teaches courses like rural livelihood systems, natural resources and sustainability to postgraduate and doctoral students.

Abstract:

India has highest population of livestock and dependency of a large segment of Indian population for their livelihood security on livestock is very high. Climate change and variability is likely to affect livestock health, livestock feed and livestock productivity very severely.

This paper tries to project the future scenarios of temperature and heat waves using five climate models (ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM and NorESM1-M) for the period of 2041-2070 (2050s) and 2071-2100 (2080s) across different RCPs. It tries to study the impacts of climate change and variability on general health and productivity of milk bearing animals. Based on Agro-ecological Zonation (Fischer, 2012)methodology, it also tries to project availability of feed during 2041-2070 (2050s) and 2071-2100 (2080s) for livestock.

Our findings reveal that there is likely to have decrease in milk production as a result of adverse health impacts due to rising temperature or heat waves incidences, decrease in milk productivity and shortage of animal feed. The paper suggests appropriate adaptation and mitigation pathways on various SSPs to sustain high level of milk production in India.

Speaker
Biography:

Moses B. Adewole is a Senior Research Fellow in the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. He holds B.Sc. (Chemistry), Ife (1985); M.Sc. (Agronomy) Soil Science, Ibadan (1995) and PhD (Agronomy) Soil Science, Ibadan (2006). He was a Deputy Director (Crops), Oyo State World Bank sponsored - Agricultural Development Project (OYSADEP) before joining the OAU, Ile-Ife as an academic member of staff in 2007. He presently teaches Advanced Soil Ecology, Soil Resources Management and Conservation, Municipal and Industrial Waste Management, and Farming System and the Environment at the postgraduate level. His main research is in the area of soil health and crop quality improvement using environment-friendly biotechnology approach. Dr. Adewole is a member of many professional bodies such as Farm Management Association of Nigeria, Biochar Initiative of Nigeria and Nigerian Organic Agriculture Network. He enjoys going on field trips and multidisplinary research.

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in 2014 and 2015 on an Ultisol soil type of forest ecology in Southwestern Nigeria to determine the effects of zero-tillage and biochar use on the rate of soil carbon sequestration and soil fertility maintenance when maize was the test crop. This was with a view to optimising strategies for enhancing carbon sequestration in the soil. The experimental field was prepared once and plots were laid in a randomised complete block design with three treatments, each replicated four times. Seeds of maize variety, ART/98/SW6 were sown and the treatments [maize stover and maize cob biochars], each at 10 t ha-1 were applied at sowing. Zero biochar application served as control. Manual weeding of the plots was carried out at 2, 5 and 7 weeds after sowing (WAS), and the experiment terminated at 12 WAS. Maize stoverbiochar had higher potential for carbon sequestration with 12.45 t C ha-1 yr-1 as about 79% of the initial organic cabon remained in the soil after the two consecutive maize cropping. Enhanced dry matter yield and nutrient uptake of maize were obtained with zero-tillage agrosystem and biochars as soil amendments in a sandy loam soil of Nigerian forest ecology.

Liming Zhou

University at Albany, USA

Title: Desert amplification and Global Warming
Speaker
Biography:

Liming Zhou has research interests in land-atmosphere/climate interaction, land-surface remote sensing, remote sensing of vegetation dynamics,land-surface modeling, climate modeling, andapplications of various remote sensed products in weather, climate, and environmental sciences.During the past decade, he has used satellite data, observations and climate models to understand physical processes/mechanisms and interactions of land-human-climate systems, and to improve model capability to predict climate change and assess its impacts and consequence on our climate and environment. Land surface processes related to vegetation dynamics, deforestation, afforestation, urbanization, desertification, and renewable wind energy are his emphases.

Abstract:

Previous research found that the warming rateobserved for the period 1979–2012 increases dramaticallywith decreasing vegetation greenness over land in mid- and low- latitudes, with the strongest warming rate seen overthe driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the ArabianPeninsula, suggesting warming amplification over deserts.Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistentlyand persistently seen over the driest ecoregions duringvarious 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate (similar to polar amplification). This amplificationenhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing. Possible mechanisms for this amplification are explored by analyzing changes in various variablesrelated to atmospheric profiles, surface radiative forcing, landsurface properties, and surface energy and radiation budget. My results show that desert amplification islikely attributable mostly to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surfaceover drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response toincreasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental patternof global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes wheresurface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is possible that desert amplificationmight involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical uppertroposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive tochanges of water vapor.

Speaker
Biography:

The authors belong to the Institute of Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics at the Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg and to the Institute for Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology at the Clausthal University of Technology in Germany and conduct research in the field of heat radiation in industrial kilns.

Abstract:

There are countless climate models, which predict the impacts of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the global earth temperature. Because of the large number of influencing parameters used, these models are mostly very complex, so the influences of the particular parameter can hardly be comprehended, i.e. the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

 

Due to this fact, the greenhouse effect is described with simple analytical resolvable equations. Therefore a simplified uniform surface temperature of the earth is assumed. The radiation exchange between earth, clouds, space and the layers of gas between is calculated with these equations, which were developed for the analogue radiation exchange in industrial furnaces. With this model, the temperature profile in the atmosphere can be described relatively well.

 

The CO2 in the atmosphere acts as a radiation shield, which increases the heat resistance against the outgoing long-wave radiation from the earth surface. The known average temperature of the Earth was used to validate this model.

 

When the CO2 in the atmosphere is doubled, the absorptivity increases slightly.Because of this increase, the temperature of the earth surface has to increase about 0.4 Kelvin to compensate the increased heat transport resistance.
Since 1860,the Earth's temperaturehas already risendue toanthropogenic CO2emissionsby0.2Kelvin. The measuredincrease of about0.9Kelvinis attributed toside effectscausedby theCO2 related temperature increase. Therefore, atemperatureincrease of more than 0.4 Kelvinis predictedfor the future.Without CO2, the temperature of the Earth would be 4 K colder.

Speaker
Biography:

Mitsuru Osaki is Professor of Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University and Professor of Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University from 2006. He was trained as a plant physiologist and soil scientist, and obtained his doctorate degree in from the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, in Japan in 1981. He worked as Associate Scientist in Maize Unit of CIMMYT in Mexico from 1982 to 1984. Until 2006, he has been working with the Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University in Japan, to implement a research and teaching on Rhizosphere Management. He also has been carried out many collaborative researches and teaching projects on tropical land management and rehabilitation of tropical forest. Also he is a Project Leader of JST-JICA Project on "Wild Fire and Carbon Management in Peat-Forest in Indonesia" from 2008 to 2014. He is also interested in sustainability viewed from soil fertility, food production, bio-energy, land management and SATOYAMA.

Abstract:

The CDEFs security is new concept on estimation and management of High Carbon Reservoir Ecosystem, especially in Tropical Peatland such as;Climate Change security, (bio)Diversity security,Energy security,Food/feed security, and social security.Peatland is typical case, which relate closely with the CDEFs security, because peatland sustains high water table and high carbon reservoir, and high biomass productivity, contributing mitigation and adaptation to Climate Change security,  high  Bio-Diversity, high Biomass Energy production, high Food/feed production, and social security throughout CDEF security. In past, unfortunately tropical peatland management and development have been misleading against high CDEFs security of tropical peatland.

Lets remind again what is “The Tropical Peatland Principle” (1,2).  Tropical Peatland is typical case of wetland, then water is most functional element among other wetland. Especially, high water table, not moisture is most rational principal for peat formation and peat conservation.Because oxygen permeability is a key factor of peat decomposition.Even if peat keep wet condition, Opermeate until water table of peatland, then peat is decomposed quickly (3).

Internationally, water is most important resource for terrestrial ecosystem. Global Risks 2015 reported "Top 10 risks in terms of global Impact" (4), in which Water crises is ranked as number one. Thus, it is better to change basically national policy on tropical peatland management used as wet-peatland, not dry-peatland. Wet-peatland function as large water reservoir, which is great benefit, rolling as natural capital such as water dam. Natural capital of Wet-peatland as Water Reservoir is inestimable, because especially Wet-peatland securer to supply water in dry season even if El Niño year, which contribute to the national food/feed security, and at same time, to reduction of CO2 emission. In other words, Wet-peatland contribute globally to both mitigation (reduction of CO2 emission) and adaptation (water supply for plant growth in severe dry) against  climate change.

Speaker
Biography:

Xia Jia has her expertise in evaluation in the effect of global changes combined with heavy metal-polluted soils on ecosystems. Her research has been in the general field of interrelationships between plants and rhizosphere microenvironment under global changes combined with heavy metals. The long-term objective of her study is to have a better understanding of the response mechanism of ecosystems to the combination of global change and metal-contaminated soils, and eventually apply the knowledge gained in her study to assess the environmental risk of global change combined with heavy metal pollution to ecosystems.

Abstract:

Elevated atmospheric CO2 and contamination of soil with heavy metals co-occur in natural ecosystems and have important effects on the soil microenvironment by influencing plant physiology. We examined the response of the black locust rhizosphere microenvironment to elevated atmospheric CO2 (700 ppm) in combination with Cd- and Pb-contamination. Elevated CO2 led to an increase in organic compounds (total soluble sugars, soluble phenolic acids, free acids, and organic acids), microbial populations, biomass, and activity, and enzyme activity (urease, dehydrogenase, invertase, and β-glucosidase) and changes in microbial community in rhizosphere soils under Cd, Pb, or Cd + Pb treatments relative to ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 also corresponded to an increase in chlorophyll a and b in leaves, total sugars, and starch in leaves and stems of black locust seedlings under Cd and Pb stress relative to either metal alone, which indicated that changes in the rhizosphere microenvironment was affected by the response of seedlings physiology. The pH was lower under elevated CO2 + Pb + Cd than under metals, which led to changes in Cd and Pb fractionation between soils and plants. Therefore, the removal of Cd and Pb in rhizosphere soils and the uptake of Cd and Pb by plants increased under elevated CO2. The increased removal of Cd and Pb in soils and the high rate of Cd and Pb uptake under elevated CO2 indicated that black locust seedlings can be used for phytoremediation of contaminated soils under global change scenarios. Furthermore, our study also suggests that elevated CO2 alters the distribution of heavy metals in soil and plants and stimulates the uptake of plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety. Overall, elevated CO2 benefits the soil microenvironment in the rhizosphere of black locust seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

Speaker
Biography:

Nils-Axel (”Niklas”) Mörner took his Ph.D. in Quaternary Geology at Stockholm University in 1969. Head of the institute of Paleogeophysics & Geodynamics (P&G) at Stockholm University from 1991 up to his retirement in 2005. He has written many hundreds of research papers and several books. He has presented more than 500 papers at major international conferences. He has undertaking field studies in 59 different countries. The P&G institute became an international center for global sea level change, paleoclimate, paleoseismics, neotectonics, paleomagnetism, Earth rotation, planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction, etc. Among his books; Earth Rheology, Isostasy and Eustasy (Wiley, 1984), Climate Change on a Yearly to Millennial Basis (Reidel, 1984), Paleoseismicity of Sweden: a novel paradigm (P&G-print, 2003), The Greatest Lie Ever Told (P&G-print, 2007), The Tsunami Threat: Research & Technology (InTech, 2011), Geochronology: Methods and Case Studies (InTech, 2014), Planetary Influence on the Sun and the Earth, and a Modern Book-Burning (Nova, 2015).

Abstract:

The sea level changes in the Fiji Islands have been the focus at the UN conference on Our Oceans, Our Future on June 5-9, hosted by the governments of Sweden and Fiji, and will surely be in the focus again at the COP23 conference in Bonn, November 6-17, hosted by the Government of Fiji. This focus, however, was quite miss-directed,depending on models and preconceived ideas, and ignoring observational facts. Anticipating that this would be the case, we undertook a special sea level investigation in the Fiji Islands themselves, bringing forward evidenced-based observational facts on past and present sea level changes [1].

As an example of what we mean by evidence-based observa-tional facts, we refer to our paper on the sea level changes in the Indian Ocean [2], where we combine multiple observational facts like coastal morphology, stratigraphy, ecology, coastal dynamics, history, archaeology and radiocarbon dating.

We have discussed the tide-gauge stations on the island of Vitu Levi [3] and coastal erosion on the Yasawa Islands [4]. Now we summarize our findings with respect to sea level changes [1, 5] as illustrated in Figure 1.

The shores of the Yasawa Islands are characterized by a strong coastal stability [1, 4, 5]. The HTL is, on rocky coasts, marked by rock-cut platforms and under-cut notches and sea caves, indicative of multi-decadal sea level stability. At several places we observed the occurrence of coral “mini-atolls” with a living coral rim at 40-60 cm below LTL (Fig. 1).

The conclusion is that the regional eustatic ocean level has remained stable in the Fiji region for, at least, several decades, and that there do not exist any observational signs of any present on-going sea level rise. Anyone claiming the opposite does this for reasons other than evidence-based scientific observations.

Diana Guzmán Barraza

Guzmán-Barraza Energy Engineering & Consulting, Mexico

Title: Satellite-derived annual estimations of PM2.5 (air quality)
Speaker
Biography:

Guzmán-Barraza is a Sustainability and Climate Change Consultant and former Field Engineer in the Oil & Gas industry, whose work has had a positive impact on the urban development of Monterrey. She recently represented civil society on climate change topics in the United Nations in NYC, and in multiple international high-level events. She is also a collaborative partner of the UNFCCC, and of the Civil Society Partner Constituent Group of the United Nations General Assembly of Habitat III. Guzmán-Barraza has received certified training on Climate Change topics by former Vice President of the USA Al Gore, NASA, UN Habitat, UNICEF, UNITAR, WHO, and UNCC:Learn, and is also among the world´s first generation certified by the World Bank as a regional-scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories Specialist. She holds a MSC degree in Sustainable Energy Engineering from the UK, a BSc degree in Industrial & Systems Engineering from LA most prominent higher institution -Tec de Monterrey-, and has been the recipient of multiple awards, scholarships, and commemorations.

Abstract:

PM2.5 is particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns of diameter, which is 20-28 times smaller than that of a human hair. Prolonged exposure to concentration levels above 10 Mg/m3 of this type of air pollution increases the risks of cardiovascular diseases by 95%, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It also contributes to global warming, and as such, to climate change, which poses the largest threat to humanity in history.
In the spirit of collaborating with the international community to solve the climate crisis, this research was developed using my home country, Mexico, as a case study. It can be replicated for every country in the world. Figure 1 shows the annual mean estimates for PM2.5 concentration levels in the country, highlighting darker colors for areas with higher concentrations of this type of air pollution. Notice that the region around the south east, Mexico City, and Monterrey show alarmingly dangerous high levels of concentration, which pose a huge threat to the health of locals. These regions are also were much of the country´s GDP is generated. Major oilfields are located in the southeast, while up north around Monterrey, the region is home to the leading cement, steel, glass, beer, industries, as well as plenty other industrial processes. We must be aware of the sources of greenhouse gas emissions around human settlements, monitor the quality of the air we breathe, and address the urgency of implementing new climate adaptation & mitigation plans around the world. There is an acute relationship between climate change & health, and not taking action comes at a cost far higher than the upfront costs of addressing the needs for clean technologies.
This research supports the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3 (Good Health & Well-Being) & 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities) - both of which specifically address air quality using PM2.5 concentration levels as an indicator. It was generated using the skills gained on my recent certified NASA training on creating air quality data sets derived from satellite observations. It is also my first surprise contribution, as a voluntary collaborative partner, to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area Air Quality (OCCAMM) Citizen Observatory.

Speaker
Biography:

Carolina Martínez (Ph.D. - Geography) is a Professor at the Geography Institute at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). Her area of research is geomorphology and costal environment dynamics, coastal and natural risk management. Her recent works are focused on analysing factors of change on tectonic coasts that are recently affected by natural disturbances such as earthquakes, tsunamis and swells. She also studies the socio-territorial effects on costal locations.

Abstract:

In the central Chilean region (33°-38.6°S), the Mw=8.8 earthquake of February 27, 2010, and the associated tsunami generated widespread devastation along 600 km of shoreline. This event caused strong morphologic, environmental and social changes. Coastal uplift larger than 2 m on the west coast of Arauco Peninsula (37°-37.7°S) produced the outcropping of shore platforms, changes in the intertidal zone, and the drying of wetlands. One of the most affected coastal wetlands was the Tubul-Raqui where important geomorphological, ecological and socio-territorial changes were generated. Here, the uplift magnitude was 1.4m. In the 1960s, a group of fishermen and algae (gracilariachilensis) gatherers was organized, forming a settlement of about 2000 residents.This was severely affected by the tsunami of February 27, 2010. In this context, the inundation risk due to tsunami in Tubul,Arauco Gulf was evaluated (Image). The risk of tsunami inundation is analyzed for an extreme event in the town of Tubul (37 ° S), Bio-Bio Region. Three scenarios were identified for risk assessment, in all of which numerical simulation was applied. Two of the three scenarios were local tsunamis, the events of 1835 and 2010, and the event of 1877 was included to determine the effects of a far field tsunami. The tsunami of 1835 was determined as an extreme event, which gave inundation heights of 10m and run-up of 10m. Vulnerability was analyzed from physical, socioeconomic and educational points of views. Two levels of vulnerability were defined, namely medium and high. These levels were selected based on the poor housing materials, the vulnerable socioeconomic profiles of the population, low educational levels and the population´s reactions to these tsunami events. The results show that natural risk is obtained at the high level in the whole town. These results were also compared with the current Reconstruction Plan.

Speaker
Biography:

Wei Puis a PhD candidate in climatology. He focused on studying insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAPs) in snow and its effect on snow albedo and subsequent climate change. He has participated in several field campaigns to collect snow in China and has rich experiences in processing snow samples and analyzingILAPs content. He also has involved inthe development of a snow albedo model.

Abstract:

Insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAPs), primarily black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and dust, deposited on snow can reduce snow albedo,which can significantly affect regional and global climate.Hence, understanding ILAPs content in snow is very important for climate prediction. We conducted a large field campaign and collected 284 snow samples at 38 sites in Xinjiang Province and 6 sites in Qinghai Province across northwestern China from January to February 2012. A spectrophotometer combined with chemical analysis was used to measure ILAPs and chemical components in seasonal snow. The results indicate that the cleanest snow was found in northeastern Xinjiang along the border of China, and it presented an estimated black carbon () of approximately 5 ng g-1. The dirtiest snow presented a  of approximately 450 ng g-1 near industrial cities in Xinjiang. Overall, the  of most of the snow samples collected in this campaign was in the range of 10-150 ng g-1. Vertical variations in the snowpack ILAPs indicated a probable shift in emission sources with the progression of winter. An analysis of the fractional contributions to absorption implied that organic carbon (OC) dominated the 450-nm absorption in Qinghai, while the contributions from BC and OC were comparable in Xinjiang. Finally, a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was run to explore the sources of particulate light absorption, and the results indicated an optimal three-factor/source solution that included industrial pollution, biomass burning, and soil dust.

Speaker
Biography:

. Bernardin Peroš, M.Sc.C.E. Completed his Ph. D. in 1995. at the Faculty of Civil Engineering University of Zagreb Croatia. His Doctoral thesis was “Safety of structures with a dominant wind load”. He was a professor of eight courses at graduate studies and two courses at postgraduate-doctoral studies at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture University of Split. He was a professor at postgraduate studies at the Faculty of Civil Engineering University of Zagreb and Faculty of Civil engineering in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Hercegovina.

He was a vice –rector at the University of Split 2002-2004, and a dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture 2007-2010.

Scientific research:  Safety of engineering structures and risk assessment under extreme actions. Publications includes: 92 scientific papers in journals and proceedings of scientific conferences. He was a mentor for a great number of postgraduate and doctoral theses. He has tree published books and two textbookks for students.

Membership: International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE. ECCS –European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS);  COST TU 0904 – Integrated Fire Engineering and Response. He is Member of technical boards for development of Croatian norms and regulations in civil engineering.

Abstract:

Nowdeys, we have the occurrence of large-scale damage in buildings (wind, snow, temperature, earthquake, etc.), all of which are caused by climate and other changes (planned global increasing the Earth's temperature to year 2100. in the amount of 1 - 6 °C).

Aditionally, the contribution of air pollution on a regional and global level, which refers to the general process of urbanization, should be added to the list. Studies of urban climatology have been developed at the level of theory and numerical modeling, while detailed research are close to determining the actual air quality in cities.

Here the urban climate can be understood by studying the changes that are primarily the result of changes in land use, resourcing of energy, moisture, circulation, and local air quality. All this leads to the consideration and the fact that the construction in its lifetime, is exposed a complex process of degradation, which primarily reflected to the reduction in their resistance and stability. The solution of this process of degradation is in determining structures durability in all phases of design, construction and use. Depending on the previous phases, maintenance can be preventive or existential.

The trend of structural reliability (decreasing resistance and increasing the load), can be the cause of the gradual (time) "damage", and as a result "unexpected damage" which was primarily caused by climatic and other changes in the useful life of the building. We're talking about a new trend in structural design, where the probability failure mechanisms of structures (pf) expressed in time pf(t):

where:

FR(x,t) - the current "cumulative" distribution function of structural resistance,

fS(x,t) - the current "density" load structure.

The needed for further scientific expert research is as follows:

- Scientific studies of climate and other changes by aspect of extreme action on the structure.

- The monitoring of the behavior of significant buildings during use.

- Research Chemical- mechanical Civil engineering properties of a new generation of materials in accordance with modern technologies.

- Creating New Models - behavior of structures in the life of the relative state of the environment (climate and other changes).

Speaker
Biography:

Geoffrey Mukwada is an Associate Professor in Environmental Geography and is based at the University of the Free State in South Africa. Professor Mukwada’s research primarily revolves around natural resource management, climate change and rural livelihoods. He has published more than thirty papers in accredited journals. He is the founding coordinator of the Afromontane Research Unit (ARU) at the University of the Free State and is the current coordinator of the Living and Doing Business in Afromontane Environments theme of the ARU.

Abstract:

Despite being perched in the relatively high rainfall Drakensberg Mountain Region, Lesotho has recently experienced severe droughts which have placed large numbers of people at risk. Generally rated rated rated rated rated rated as a “fragile state” “ and a typical Least Developed Country ”, by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the countryneeds technical assistance in terms of climate change preparedness. This paper investigates the spatiotemporal variability of drought in Lesotho, using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values that were calculated from gridded precipitation data. The data were acquired from the CRUTS website through Climate Explorer and were for the 1960-2014 period. The resolution of the data was 0.5o x 0.5o. The calculations were done using the Drought Index Calculator (DrinC) and were for the January, February and March (JFM) months, the prime period during which the country receives most of its precipitation. The resultant SPI values were categorized using McKee’s et al. (1993) classification to determine the years when specific grid points experienced droughts of particular levels of severity, including moderate, severe and extremely severe droughts. Time series analysis was then employed to determine drought and wet years alongside amounts of precipitation, and the spatial variability of the SPI values for drought years were interpolated in an ArcGIS (version 10.3) environment. The results indicate that the northern, southern and western parts of the country are more susceptible to drought, compared to the eastern parts of the country. This knowledge is important for drought related disaster management planning and for designing policies that mitigate climate related hazards and enhance vulnerability in the country.

Speaker
Biography:

Zeyaur Khan has made significant contribution to African society by enhancing food security and environmental sustainability through scientific research into the complex mechanisms that govern the ecology of plant–insect interactions and plant signaling in smallholder cereal–livestock production systems, leading to development of ‘push–pull’, an ecological, pro-poor agricultural innovation, and its adaptation to climate change to ensure its long term sustainability;  and for leading a research-based extension system for wide-scale dissemination of  push–pull, in which natural and social scientists work closely with farmers and extension agents to ensure that research serves the evolution and spread of the technology.

Abstract:

adaptable, productive agricultural systems that are resilient to the risks and shocks associated with long-term climate variability is essential to maintaining food production into the future. Climate-smart agriculture systems needs to protect and enhance natural resources and ecosystem services in a way that mitigate future climate change. We developed the ‘push-pull’ system (www.push-pull.net), a conservation agriculture companion cropping technology for smallholder mixed farming systems which effectively controls serious biotic constraints to cereal production in Africa, insect pests  and striga weed, while improving soil health and biodiversity. The companion plants provide high value animal fodder, facilitating milk production. Furthermore, soil fertility is improved due to the nitrogen fixing intercrop and soil degradation is prevented. The environmental and economic benefits of push–pull are most evident when it is part of an integrated crop-livestock system on a mixed smallholder farm, driving the cycling of nutrients between crops, animals and soil. Push–pull contains a legume, desmodium, which adds nitrogen to soil and has a trailing habit, helping conserve soil moisture. It reduces digging and adds to soil organic matter, enhancing the capacity of the soil to sequester carbon. The push-pull system has been adapted to drier and hotter conditions linked to climate change by identification and incorporation of drought tolerant companion crops (http://www.push-pull.net/Climate-smart_Push-Pull.pdf). This climate-smart push-pull directly responds to rising uncertainties in Africa’s rain-fed agriculture due to the continent’s vulnerability to climate change. The new companion crops, can withstand extended periods of drought stress. To date push-pull has been adopted by over 130,000 smallholder farmers in eastern Africa whose cereal yields have increased from about 1 t/ha to 3.5 t/ha. Low-input technologies that address several production constraints and deliver multiple benefits are more relevant for African smallholder farmers but also have useful lessons for agricultural systems in the developed world.

  • Track: Evidence of Climate Change
    Track: Sustainability & Climate Change
    Track: Energy Policy
    Track: Carbon Cycle

Session Introduction

Tijian Wang

Nanjing University, China

Title: Ozone pollution and its link with heat wave and East Asia Summer Monsoon
Speaker
Biography:

Tijian Wang is a professor and vice director of School of Atmospheric Science of Nanjing University, committee member of IGAC-China, Deputy Secretary-General of Atmospheric Environmental Society of Chinese Environmental Science Society and vice director of Atmospheric Composition Society Chinese of Meteorological Society. His research interests center around regional air pollution and climate change, urban atmospheric chemistry and environmental meteorology, air quality and haze weather forecast, atmospheric deposition and air-soil exchange. More than 200 papers have been published in the domestic and international professional journals.

Abstract:

Ozone plays a key role in global and regional climate change and atmospheric environment. Tropospheric ozone is not only a main greenhouse gas, but also a secondary pollutant. In East Asia,ozone can be affected both in concentration and spatial pattern by typical monsoon climate and high ozone is always linked with heat wave. Using regional climate model RegCM-Chem, the difference of ozone between strong monsoon years and weak monsoon years was analyzed. It was found that EASM intensity can significantly influence the spatial distribution of the low-level ozone. When EASM is strong, ozone in central Asia (28°N ~ 42° N) was reduced, but inversed in the north and south. Surface ozone difference range from -6.5 to 6.9ppb during the four months(May to August) in summer monsoon season, showing the most obvious difference in August. Difference of four month averaged ozone range from -3 to 3.8 ppb and regional variation range from-10% to 25%. Process analysis shows that the main factors controlling ozone level during summer monsoon seasons are the advection and chemistry. Observations indicated that YRD experienced severe heat waves with maximum temperature up to 41.1 °C, 6.1 °C higher than the definition of heat wave in China, and can last for as long as 27 days. Maximum ozone reached 160.5 ppb, exceeding the national air quality standard (secondary level) as 74.7 ppb. Moreover, ozone was found to increase at a rate of 4-5 ppb K-1 within the temperature range of 28-38 °C, but decrease by a rate of -1.3~-1.7 ppb K-1 under extremely high temperature. Modeling studies show that chemical reactions play the most important role in ozone formation during heat wave days. High temperature also slightly promote the effect of dry deposition velocity, vertical turbulence and horizontal advection, which beneficial to ozone remove, but the magnitude is much smaller than chemical effect.

Speaker
Biography:

Jianan Zhao is currently a professor of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). More recent his expertise is focused on the relationship between energy resources, regional development and industrial carbon emission. He has published more than 50 academic papers in these areas.

Abstract:

Since the beginning of 21st century, the rapid development of economy in Tibet creates a substantial increase in energy consumption. Statistics derived from direct and indirect surveys show that total energy consumption has surpassed five million tce, where electricity, petroleum products and biomass energy play the primary role. Furthermore, non-fossil energy including hydroelectricity, photovoltaic power and biomass energy accounts for more than 50% in the total consumption. This paper aims to provide a roadmap targeting the development of both energy supply and consumption under the current trends of sustainable requirement (see Figure 1). Overall, clean energy is very abundant in Tibet, which is recognized as the region that has the greatest potential in developing hydroelectricity, photovoltaic resources in the future of China. Moreover, the process and scale of clean energy utilization has been extending along with the development of power grid with both of backbone- and distributed-forms covering whole Tibet. In future, it is predicted that the development of hydroelectricity and photovoltaic power is not only to satisfy the consumption in Tibet, but also have surplus power transmitted to other regions in China and even other neighboring countries, such as Nepal and India. Therefore, it is expected that Tibet will become the most important region of clean energy production and transmission in China.

Speaker
Biography:

Lei Shen is currently a professor and director of Key Lab for Resources Use and Environmental Restoration (RUER), Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). He was the consultant of the World Economic Forum in Minerals and Metals Council in 2010 and the World Bank in 2006, and the academic committee of Word Mine Ministry Forum in 2008. He was granted the “Excellent Scientist by China Society of Natural Resources in 2012 and 2013”. More recent his expertise is focused on energy policy and mineral economics, involving the areas of regulatory systems surrounding resource extraction, energy intensive industry, cement manufacturing and regional development planning in China, resources-based city transformation and sustainable development, and energy and mineral security and multi-lateral resource cooperation. He also has particular experience in policy for small-scale mining in China.

Abstract:

Under the objectives of sustainable development, regional energy security (RES) and carbon emission mitigation (CEM), in theory at least, should have significant synergetic benefits. In practice, however, many cases in regard to trade-offs and even conflicts are always found due to the variations in the interest orientation of energy service subjects. And thus the current solution to the conflicts between RES and CEM still lack of a comprehensive and systematic planning. This paper aimed to explore a roadmap for chasing the optimal synergy between RES and CEM. The analysis verified the findings of recent studies that both synergies and conflicts between RES and CEM have significant impacts, and we also established a framework for positioning the basic objectives with core elements of RES and CEM (see Figure 1). This framework was designed with a concern on the multi-scale combining the short- and long-term perspectives in related to national, sub- national and micro-behavior levels: in national level, the energy supply security should be still treated as the core issue, and then the carbon mitigation goals derived from international climate negation could be followed up; in sub-national level, more attention should be paid on the inter-regional cooperation of energy efficiency along with the regional planning of carbon mitigation; in micro-behavior level, the changes in the patterns of energy use and carbon mission should be discussed based on the interactions between macro-policy and micro-behavior. Several solutions for optimizing synergic benefits and resolving conflict problems should be placed from macro- to micro-scales with the perspectives from short-term to long-term: in national-scale, an optimal interval for energy supply to integrate the targets should be provided; in sub-national scale, an optimal interval for synergetic planning should be arranged; in micro-behaviors scale, a roadmap chasing the lowest levels of energy use and carbon emission should be proposed.

Speaker
Biography:

I am Simita Roy, have completed my B.Arch from Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) in 2016. Now I am working as lecturer in University of Asia Pacific (UAP), Dhaka, Bangladesh. My field of interest is climate change and how architecture can help to mitigate the impact of climate change. I have done a primary research on making a vulnerable indigenous community self resilient in an ecologically responsive way in case of climate change, which was done as my final year thesis of B.Arch program.

Abstract:

The coastal region of Bangladesh covers almost about 20% of the country and more than 30% of the cultivable lands of the country. The major problem faced by the coastal region is undeniable and unequivocal climate change which leads to permanent inundation, drainage congestion, salinity intrusion and frequent storm surge inundation. About 53% of the coastal areas of Bangladesh are affected by salinity. The agricultural production of these areas is much lower than the other areas of Bangladesh. Shyamnagar upazilla, Satkhira, is one of the vulnerable coastal areas to the climate change, which was severely affected during the cyclone Aila, 2009. This paper is based on field observations and design thinking in creating a symbiotic relationship between the built environment and the community aiming towards resilience in the context of a changing climate. Discussions regarding design approaches in making a community self resilient in an ecologically responsive way will be presented by focusing on four issues - cyclone, salinity intrusion, climate change and decreasing rate of mangrove. To achieve the expected result the basis was ‘Function Follows Flow’. Primary data and secondary data have used to understand all kinds of flows such as ‘flow of water’, ‘flow of wind’ in and around the site. The expected result of this research will give a vision to make a vulnerable indigenous community self resilient in an ecologically responsive way in case of climate change.

Speaker
Biography:

Limao WANG is Professor in Energy Economy and Environmental policy at Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He has been active in the area of Energy Economics and Energy Security for nearly 20 years. His current research interests focus on Energy Geopolitics, Energy Consumption and Climate Change Policy.

Abstract:

Setting low-carbon development should take account of multi-objectives with concern on different economic and policy background. This paper designed two scenarios to present the low-carbon energy development in China, including the appropriate low-carbon scenario (S1) and the advanced low-carbon scenario (S2), where three economic objectives (represented by the annual GDP growth rate) was set at 4%, 6% and 8% respectively during the period between 2015-2030.The analysis evaluated the development potentials of low carbon energy and their contributions for achieving the national target of cutting down the CO2 emission per unit GDP by 60%~65% by 2030 (compared to the 2005 level). We provided several findings: (1) under the S1, low-carbon energy will reach 11.94 Gtce, whereas under the S2, it will reach 14.93 Gtce by 2030. It was predicted that if the annual GDP growth rate was set at 4%, 6%, and 8% between 2015 and 2030, China should cut down 143.63, 194.81and 262.73 Gt CO2 emission, respectively; (2) Low carbon energy would contribute 12.58% (minimum) to 31.19% (maximum) toward the 2030 carbon intensive target; (3) higher GDP growth rate would make lower contribution in carbon mitigation. Maintaining a higher GDP growth rate would require more investment to low carbon energy, along with the optimization in economic restructure and the improvement of carbon productivity.

Speaker
Biography:

Shuai Zhong is currently an assistant professor for resources economics and policy in Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). He has contributed to the research on energy security, carbon emission mitigation in cement production, resources-based city transformation and water pricing and management by applying computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. He has made some contributions to CGE analysis by focusing on the issues from multi-regional and dynamic perspectives, such as the optimal allocation of regional resources with a long-term planning. His research is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41501604, 41271547 and 71633006) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0602802).

Abstract:

From a policy perspective, the differences between the objectives of energy security (ES) and carbon mitigation (CM) are evident but related. In this study, we conducted a literature analysis to evaluate available policies around the world with focus on ES and CM. The analysis verified the findings that many policies have huge co-benefits potential, but we also found the conflicts in different cases of certain polices (see Figure 1). As the conflicts become more significant and serious, ‘policy mix’ by taking various measures with a better planning is proposed to bring co-benefits between ES and CM. The findings indicate the necessity to design a policy roadmap integrated with an optimal policy mix, and the computable general equilibrium (CGE) framework has distinct advantages in the areas of policy analysis. Taking China as a case, we obtained this policy roadmap by establishing a multi-objective optimization model and it propose the best solution for improving energy saving and carbon abatement compared to single-objective optimization models. Furthermore, the different values of energy consumption peaks and carbon emission peaks were projected for 2016-2050 under different policy scenarios equipped with various policy mixes. We set the year 2030 as the timeline to define the multiple stages with different priorities in policy objectives: before 2030, policy objective would give priority to economic development; around 2030, policy objective would give priority to peaking carbon emission and reducing carbon intensity by 60-65% (compared to 2005 level); after 2030, policy objective would give priority to economic restructure with sustainable energy supply for supporting the post-industrialization. The comparative analysis on these policy scenarios not only provided an optimal interval for energy supply, but also estimated the highest, optimal and lowest levels of carbon emission peaks, respectively, through evaluating the effects derived from different policy scenarios.

Speaker
Biography:

GENG Yuanbo has his expertise in nutrient elements cycle (C, N, Mn etc.) in grassland ecosystem and the carbon emission in cement production. He partitioned soil respiration in steppe by root biomass exponential regression method and stable carbon isotope 13C pulse labeling method in the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, China. He researched CO2 emission factors from cement industry and corrected CO2 emission classification in cement production process.

Abstract:

In this study, we researched the soil respiration distinction with 13C pulse labeling technique combining static chamber-Keeling plot method in the Leymus chinensis grassland in Xinlin River basin, Inner-Mongolia. During the observation period, the δ13C value of soil respiration averaged (-17.8±0.8) ‰, which was at the range of -20.7‰~-15.7‰; δ13C of microbial respiration averaged (-21.3±0.5) ‰, ranging from-22.5‰~-19.0‰. Roots do not reflect newly assimilated C since they have long residence time. The contribution of root respiration to soil respiration averaged (30±6) %, ranging from 7%~69%. The fraction of root respiration to soil respiration began to increase from the middle of July and reached its peak value until the middle of August. Then, it gradually decreased.

Wei Li

Taiyuan University of Technology, China

Title: Carbon footprint for human activities on Antarctic: A review
Speaker
Biography:

Li Wei, female, Professor at School of Economics and Management, Taiyuan University of Technology. Director of China Natural Resources Society and deputy director of resource economy committee, executive director of energy law branch of China Double Law Research Association, executive director of energy resources system engineering branch of China Society of Systems Engineering. She was selected in "academic and technical leaders" of Shanxi Province and "131" talent projects.

Professor Li Wei engaged in energy and environmental economics and management research. She makes a breakthrough for first introduction of the complexity theory and method into regional carbon emissions research. She published more than 40 papers and a monograph "regional energy-saving potential theory and empirical research", by which she won the "first prize" of eighth outstanding social science research. She undertook several projects funded by the National Natural Science Foundation or Shanxi Science and Technology Bureau.

Abstract:

The Antarctic affects global climate change and environmental safety greatly. With the human activities increasing, the influence on ecological environment is proliferating and migrating between different levels. Carbon footprint (CF) is nowadays one of the most widely used environmental indicators. Given the uniqueness of Antarctic, this work defines the carbon footprint for human actives on Antarctic based on connotation presented by formers. The calculation methods of carbon footprint were discussed according to the principles of life cycle assessments. The mixed life cycle analyses (MLCA)were presented to calculated the carbon footprint accurately. The MLCA method combines the input-output analysis with bottom –up analysis and employ the advantage of each one. The driving factors were discussed influencing the formation of carbon footprint of human activities on Antarctic. The meta analyses were used and nearly all studies about carbon footprint for Antarctic were investigated. Lastly, this study put some efforts to establish benign mankind activities in the Antarctic by the study of the behavior of mankind activities.

Speaker
Biography:

Lai Lai has her experience in conducting yield trial experiments of pigeon pea, ground nut, sesame and green gram. Besides she is expert in research area of pod borer resistant varieties of pigeonpea, incidence of chafer betel and effective insecticide in groundnut, pigeonpea, groundnut and mungbean. In her MSc study, she observed in Effect of Storage Methods on Fungi, Aflatoxin Contamination and Seed Quality of Small- and Large-Seeded Types Peanut. She is staff officer in department of agriculture under ministry of agriculture, livestock and irrigation, Myanmar. She is responsible in testing seed viability by Tetrazolium Solution, field inspection, seed testing, seed certification for rice seed farm, samples from contract farmers in rice growing township. As a member of technical extension group in Department of Agriculture, she is teaching quality seed production technologies and seed quality control procedures, post harvest technologies to DOA staffs in different regions of the country. Currently, she is studying for PhD degree in University Putra Malaysia. Her research path way is effect of rice straw biochar and different N fertilizer rates on greenhouse gases emission in sustainable rice productivity.

Abstract:

In the next 25 years, rice productivity will need to increase 70% more to feed the growing human population. So extensive mineral fertilizer application will increase and directed to worsen greenhouse gases emission problem. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emission by the main cause of agricultural increases isthe application of Nitrogen fertilizers. Besides, most of the world’s rice is grown in flooded conditions that favors to methane-producing bacteria. In agriculture, the use of mineral fertilizer should be assessed not only for the food but also for climate change mitigation. So these studies investigate the effect of rice straw biochar and nitrogen fertilizer management strategiesto mitigate climate change in sustainable rice production. The pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments are rice straw biochar (9 ton/ha) was added with (150 kg N ha-1, 120 kg N ha-1, 90 kg N ha-1, 60 kg N ha-1, 30 kg N ha-1) for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively and T6 (without biochar as a control) only 150 kg/ha N fertilizer (150 kg N ha-1, 98 kg P2O5, 96 kg K2O). Leaf area, plant height, tiller numbers, SPAD value, stomata conductance and gas sampling (CO2,CH4 and N2O) were carried out at every two weeks interval. Yield parameters and soil samples before sowing and after harvestingwere taken. Rice straw biochar through the different N fertilizer rates showed the synergetic effect on rice plant growth. The yield increasing over control was found 26.6%, 26.7% and26% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively.C:N, exchangeable cation (K, Ca and Mg) and micronutrients (Cu and Mn) were significantly higher in all biochar treated soils than control regardless of the amount of N fertilizer. Biochar treated soil had no significant difference over control for CO2 gas emission. Although there had no exact trend of reduction of gas emission, all biochar treated soil had significantly reduced methane and nitrous oxide gas emission. Rice straw should be recycled into biochar as fertilizer materials for enchancedgrowth, yield, improved soil fertility and reduced greenhouse gas. Specifically, application of nine ton/ha rice straw biochar through 60 kg N ha-1could be recommended for increasing yield, improving soil properties and reducing greenhouse gas in relative to control.

Govind Singh

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, India

Title: Changing global climate: An interesting aspect to understand
Speaker
Biography:

Govind Singh Bhardwaj is contributing the society by his Nature-friendly, Geo-friendly and Geo-social approaches for problem solving and constructive purposes in applied and basic research in his field. His creative and innovative ideas & inputs of expertise are certainly a landmark contribution towards safe guard the mother earth and society, using different tools available in the field of Geo-science, Engineering Geology, and Geo-technology, GIS & Remote sensing and environmental conservation. He has put forward a new concept of the Geo-social Development and it has been appreciated by the international gathering during the international workshop organized in the field. He has given his technical delivery with the objectivity for betterment, improvement, optimization of infrastructural developmental activities in sustainable way.  by his efforts i.e. geo-electrical resistivity survey, a number of successful water supply bore wells have been located in different areas of the Rajasthan state during drought periods.He has exposure of slope stability analysis software Galena, FE, Matt lab, Flagylist, Flac 3D, GIS software TNTmips and Arc GIS, Rockware, DIPS etc. He is working on development of earthquake and landslides early warning system for issuing global and local warnings online.  His YouTube channel “Geo-explore- Unearth the Earth mine” is dedicated for educating the society by uploaded and published videos and is of good standing channel can be accessed at link https://www. youtube. com/ channel/ UCebwD_gXVVJzCG9ABelGNaw. He is recepient of several awards of national and international repute.

Abstract:

Climate, ecology, weather etc. on surface of the earth and something more complicated transformations of energy-flow dynamics, its mechanics  or better way kinematics, in the earths’ sub-surface, at different depths. In totality it is a play of energy flow. The shift in from its normal routine , used to define as abnormal. It is nothing like that, the interesting scientific phenomenon the entire world has to understand. The scientific approach is given in the paper to explore positivity and to safe guard living and non living world.

  • WorkShop
Speaker
Biography:

Christopher Bryant has been professor in Geography at the University of Waterloo (20 years) and at the Université de Montréal (24 years); he is currently Adjunct Professor at the Université de Montréal and in the School of Environmental Design and Rural Development, University of Guelph. He is one of the world’s leading researchers in agriculture around cities (50 years of research), and he has also spent 26 years of research in the adaptation of agriculture to climate change and variability, as well as 30 years in research in local community development. He is currently in the top 7 % of researchers in the Research Gate network.

Abstract:

Objectives and process to be used in the workshop:

The objective of this workshop ion CCV is currently being recognized and integrated into how different processes involve participants in exchanging and discussing: 1) how different forms of planning for agricultural development and preservation can enhance agriculture’s contribution to Food Security; and 2) how to move forwards in ensuring a sustainable and long term development of agriculture by drawing upon the experiences and challenges of selected territories that different participants in the workshop are aware of. The results of the workshop will be used to produce a document for all participants.