Day 2 :
Carleton University, Canada
Prof Alex Ellery is a Canada Research Chair in Space Robotics & Space Technology at the Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department of Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. He has a BSc in Physics, an MSc in Astronomy and a PhD in Astronautics & Space Engineering from the UK and is a graduate of the International Space University. He was awarded the George Stephenson medal by the IMechE in 2005 and delivered a prize winning paper at the World Energy Congress Istanbul in 2016 His expertise is in the application of robotics and artificial intelligence to space exploration including the exploitation of planetary in-situ resources and the application of 3D printing technology to extraterrestrial material. His goal is to develop this state-of-the-art technology to realise self-replicating machines on the Moon in order to implement innovative global climate change mitigation solutions.
Effects of climate change are increasing year-on-year, yet greenhouse emissions from fossil fuel combustion continue to accumulate in the atmosphere. Furthermore, there is natural inertia in the climatic system that dictates that the full effects of current greenhouse gases have yet to be realized. Renewable energy sources, although growing in their deployment, have capacity limits in an increasingly energy-hungry world, particularly with regard to supplying baseload power. There are thus two aspects to our current geophysiological ailment – aetiology (fossil fuel combustion) and symptoms (temperature). These problems can be solved by implementing: (i) solar power satellites (SPS) to supply solar energy to Earth at 230 W/m2 from space 24 x 7 (antibiotic), and (ii) space solar shields (SSS) emplaced at the Sun-Earth L1 libration point to reduce solar flux to Earth by 1.8% (analgesic). The chief hindrance has been technological capabilities and the astronomical cost imposed by launch from Earth at $20,000/kg. Both problems can be alleviated through self-replication technology, an emerging capability based on robotic machines that can extract raw materials, process it and manufacture it into copies of its own parts. It has been determined that extraction of lunar materials required for building robotic machines is feasible. Furthermore, 3D printing of metals, plastics and ceramics has been developing rapidly. We have been developing technology for 3D printing electric motors and neural network-based circuitry from lunar material as the core components of a self-replicating machine and, indeed, any robot machine. From such universal constructing machines on the Moon, SPS and SSS can be manufactured in vast numbers enabled through self-replication. SPS in conjunction with SSS offer the most effective and robust solution to climate change. The high cost problem may be effectively eliminated in comparison with alternatives through the use of self-replicating machines – such machines are viable and imminent.
Wildcraft Forest School, Canada
Don Elzer is a community economic development specialist and founder of the Wildcraft Forest School. He is a wildcrafter and field biosemiotician from British Columbia. He is best known for his investigative research and ongoing work with rural communities and First Nations. With over 20 years of field experience working with small and medium sized enterprises and communities he has acquired key knowledge about current development issues impacting our changing planet. As a consultant with the Canadian Tourism Commission he developed one of the first eco-tourism strategies in British Columbia, as well as the first creative sector development strategy in the Okanagan Valley. His role has been assessing, problem-solving and identifying emerging opportunities and leadership methods within such scenarios as industry closures, First Nations self-government, eroding community infrastructure and impacts due to climate change, so that a more creative and diverse economy can be realized and sustained based on stewardship.
Statement of the Problem:
Climate change and certain industrial activities are impacting biodiversity in rural and remote areas. Wild species in “local” ecosystems are transitioning to different locations. A lack of capacity for monitoring leaves these issues un-noticed. Because of the vastness of this problem, governments and institutions are unable to deliver assistance. Most often, people connected to these remote landscapes are observing these changes, but they may not have the organizational capacity to problem-solve. Often these wild edge and riparian areas are within an industrialized farming, logging or plantation interface which is also stressed. Shifts in supply and demand in the resource, food and medicine marketplaces are driving these operations to expand into wildlands placing habitat at risk; at the same time local “food security efforts” compete for these same lands.
Purpose and Methods:
The Wildcraft Forest School has applied experimental research within many fieldworking nodes in an effort to improve capacity for restoration and local problem-solving while establishing long-term working relationships. Methods are also developed that seek to transition certain market demand issues which place dangerous pressures on wild ecosystems and local food and medicine security.
Results and Findings:
A narrative was developed that links educated urban professionals with a “spiritual” connection to ecosystems that includes ethics and stewardship. This incentive framework creates meaning and purpose which drives an individual commitment towards stewardship of a place. The applied fieldwork has helped to transition and support species impacted by climate change and negative industrial impacts as well as to create new regenerative models for the harvesting of wild foods and medicines.
Participation continues to grow and to be engaged in providing support for restoration and advocacy work that adds capacity to local efforts. The narrative that provides the incentive continues to attract urban professionals who return home and engage with advocacy efforts while utilizing their extension work experience to support career objectives. Opportunities continue to emerge for replicating this model so that it can be applied in other regions and to improve the partnerships with scientific and monitoring agencies.
University of Adelaide, Australia
Guy M Robinson is a geographer with over forty years of experience in research on environmental management issues. He has worked extensively in the UK, Europe, Australasia and North America on pro-environmental behaviour by farmers and environmentally-friendly actions by householders. With a focus on policy dimensions in this work, he has been editor of the international journal, Land Use Policy, for the last decade. Currently based at the University of Adelaide, he has held positions at the Universities of Oxford, Edinburgh, Kingston London and South Australia. He is a Guest Professor in the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Author of over 200 academic papers, he has written several major books including ‘Conflict and Change in the Countryside’, ‘Methods and Techniques in Human Geography’, ‘Agricultural Geographies’, ‘Sustainable Rural Systems’ and ‘Handbook on the Globalisation of Agriculture’. He is currently leading an Australian Research Council-funded project on ‘Bushfires and Biodiversity’.
This paper reports on results from two major research projects conducted in South Australia. The first investigates adaptation to climate change in two of the state’s major grain and sheep farming regions, using semi-structured interviews. The second uses a postal questionnaire and internet-based surveys of residents in the peri-urban fringes of Adelaide, the state capital, to examine knowledge of and attitudes to climate change and resulting adaptations, especially in the context of increasing risk of wildfires.
The research on climate change adaptation in agriculture focused on formal institutions (e.g. government agencies) and communities of practice (e.g. farm systems groups). Both groups noted that farmers autonomously adapt to various risks, including those induced by climate variability; however, the types and levels of adaptation varied among individuals because of barriers to adaptation. The lack of communication and engagement processes established between formal institutions and communities of practice was one major barrier. The paper presents and discusses a model for transferring knowledge and information on climate change among formal institutions, communities of practice, trusted individual advisors and farmers, and for supporting the co-management of climate change across multiple groups in rural areas in Australia and elsewhere.
The research in the peri-urban fringe revealed that actions taken by individuals to mitigate climate change were linked to the nature of environmental values held (or their ecological worldview) and place attachment. Individuals with a strong place attachment to the study area (the Adelaide Hills) who possessed knowledge of and/or beliefs in climate change were most likely to take mitigating actions. This was also linked to previous experience of major risk from wildfires. A model developed from this study is proposed as part of a process to develop effective climate change policy and educational strategies.
Mid Sweden University, Sweden
Inga Carlman has worked both as a consultant and as a university lecturer and researcher. She has her expertise in implementing environmental goals, mostly within the fields of renewable energy sources, Environmental Impact Assessment, Public Participation and Environmental Quality standards. Lately her interests has moved toward models/systems in relation to steering instruments. Her work with the nuclear waste problem has given her a deep insights in stakeholders’ perspective, long time problems, and law.
Erik Grönlundis a senior researcher in the interdisciplinary research group of Ecotechnology and Environmental Science at Mid Sweden University. His research is mainly connected to Sustainability Assessment Methods, and modeling of the environmental-economic interface e.g. in watersheds related to the European Union Water Framework Directive. He has an interdisciplinary interest and background in Systems Ecology, Ecological Engineering, Ecophilosophy, Journalism, and Human Ecology.
The negative effects of a changing climate have become increasingly evident along with the more detailed facts due to ongoing research. In spite of a number of societal steering tools (information, economic and legal) mankind seems to a great deal at loss on how to tackle the problems so as to get substantial results.
Vital parts embraced in this problem-picture are e.g. a) the competing paradigms and underlying theoretical assumptions b) the credibility and accuracy of different models and method, c) how to communicate the severeness of the problem to politicians, authorities, industry and the public at large, d) to adapt social steering-tools so as to e.g. make the importance of environmental quality standards understandable and hence change human conduct (Figure 1).
This paper analyses a number of models (both natural scientific and social scientific ones) and discusses their benefits and shortcomings. It furthermore brings up a) the role of public administrators to meet modern demands to take responsibility for future generations, and b) principles industry/business apply to stall proposed suggestions to tackle climate change.
Finally the paper proposes a number of suggestions on how to minimize barriers and to “level the path” for the generations to come.
Santa Rita University of Rome, Italy
Gualtiero A.N. Valeri borned in Padua, year 1960. Live in Switzerland and in Ecuador. Studied industrial chemistry and chemical engineering in Padua. Consultant in the applied sciences, R&D. Professor of Industrial Chemistry at St. Rita University of Rome. Member of Tiberina Pontificial Academy. Vicepresident of scientific committeè of Meditarranean Parliament. President of Montevenda Engineering International Association. “J. Benveniste” award for the Biophysic, year 2011. Special award for the diffusion of scientific culture from Center “Culturambiente” of Rome and the from “Centre for Peace” of Vatican City, year 2013. “Hyppocrates” award for the Medicine year 2015.
In the overall framework of the causes and problems related to climate change, which proceeds partly for natural causes, partly by human action, an important factor, mentioned by the author in the past, is connected to the change of state of soils and to land use in a great part of the world.
Currently, we have the problem of vast suburban areas with pollued soils by past industrial activities, now abandoned. The extension of these areas is often remarkable.
By means of some arboreous species is possible breaking down, significantly, the atmospheric pollution, and simultaneously remove the pollution from soils.
The possibility of forest reuse of these areas, especially trying to connect them for creating a series of wooded zones around the cities, would lead to a significant number of advantages:
- reducing air pollutants coming from the city itself, with partial removal of greenhouse gases and improve of air quality, even with the reduction of cancer, respiratory and heart disease;
- soil decontamination, for phytoextraction of inorganic and hidrocarbon contaminants and destruction of organic pollutants by microbiological activity;
- improvement of the climate, especially in warm weather;
- reduction of noise coming from traffic roads and railway lines;
- creation of green spaces with recovery of the liveability of cities themselves.
Currently 54% of the world's population is urban; alone in Europe (73% urban population) the recoverable areas may be about 30'000'000 ha. Given that an important part of atmospheric contamination and greenhouse gases come from urban areas, they would be intercepted at the origin with the described interventions.
Compared to other cases of intervention for recovery of soils, forestry and agriculture, these would be implemented in less time, less investment and immediately perceptible benefits, being areas where already exists consciousness of urgent need of requalification and urban replanning.
University of Montreal, Canada
Christopher Bryant has been professor in Geography at the University of Waterloo (20 years) and at the Université de Montréal (24 years); he is currently Adjunct Professor at the Université de Montréal and in the School of Environmental Design and Rural Development, University of Guelph. He is one of the world’s leading researchers in agriculture around cities (50 years of research), and he has also spent 26 years of research in the adaptation of agriculture to climate change and variability, as well as 30 years in research in local community development. He is currently in the top 7 % of researchers in the Research Gate network.
While considerable research has been undertaken on the adaptation of agriculture to climate change and variability (CCV) over the last 25 years, little emphasis has been placed on: 1) how agricultural adaptation to CCV has also to be set in the context of multiple other stressors facing agriculture such as increasing demands for agriculture to become sustainable from the environmental and human health perspective and from the perspective of continued urbanization pressures on agricultural lands and activities around cities; and 2) how different forms of planning involving agriculture need to be integrated if agricultural lands and activities are to be successfully maintained to be able to contribute to Food Security. This presentation reviews key elements of research into agricultural adaptation to CCV and how these can be recognized in the integration of land use planning AND strategic development planning for agricultural development. Examples coming from North America and Western Europe will be used to demonstrate what types of progress are needed in planning for agricultural land and activities especially near cities to ensure that agricultural development can contribute substantially more to Food Security than it has in the past.