Day 1 :
California Institute of Technology, USA
Agustín J. Colussi, a Research Professor at CALTECH since 1998, has published more than 200 papers in environmental physical chemistry. http://www.its.caltech.edu/~ajcoluss/
The oxidation of biogenic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions is a global source of cloud condensation nuclei. The amounts of the nucleating H2SO4(g) species produced in such process, however, remain uncertain. Hydrophobic DMS is mostly oxidized in the gas-phase into H2SO4(g) + DMSO(g) (dimethyl sulfoxide), whereas water-soluble DMSO is oxidized into H2SO4(g) in the gas-phase but into SO42- + MeSO3- (methane sulfonate) on water surfaces. Thus, R = MeSO3-/non- sea-salt-SO42- ratios would therefore gauge both the strength of DMS sources and the extent of DMSO heterogeneous oxidation if Rhet = MeSO3-/SO42- for DMSO(aq) + ·OH(g) were known. Here we report that Rhet = 2.7, a value obtained from online electrospray mass spectra of DMSO(aq) +
·OH(g) reaction products, which quantifies the MeSO3- produced in DMSO heterogeneous oxidation on aqueous aerosols for the first time. On this basis, the inverse R-dependence on particle radius in size-segregated aerosol collected over Syowa station and Southern oceans is shown to be consistent with the competition between DMSO gas-phase oxidation and its mass accommodation followed by oxidation on aqueous droplets. Geographical R variations are thus associated with variable contributions of the heterogeneous pathway to DMSO atmospheric oxidation, which increase with the specific surface area of local aerosols.
Queens College of City University of New York, USA
Keynote: Forest resilience to warming climate
Time : 09:25-09:50
Chuixiang Yi is a micrometeorologist and theoretical modeler studying how climate change affects the carbon cycle, and from that knowledge try to predict environmental changes in the future. Dr. Yi, along with 151 coauthors, won the World Meteorological Organization’s Norbert-Gerbier-MUMM International Award 2012 for best publicationfor the paper titled Climate control of terrestrial carbonexchange across biomes and continents (Yi et al., 2010, ERL). Their results show that temperature is the most important control on carbon flow in high latitudes, while water is the most important control for carbon movement in low latitudes. As a result of global warming effects during the 21st century, we predict that carbon flow from the atmosphere into ecosystems will be strengthened in high latitudes, while being weakened in low latitudes.
Forests provide a profound service in partially balancing the global carbon budget, sequestering about one quarter of anthropogenic emissions (2.4 GT C per year). However, many forests are subject to growing stress due to climate change, with drought-induced tree mortality likely increasing globally. Here, I review recent progresses in understanding: (1) how forest resilience responds to on-going climate change? (2) how can we quantify forest resilience and tipping point? And (3) what is the future of forests with on-going climate change?
University of Cincinnati, USA
Time : 09:50-10:15
Joseph P. Tomain is Dean Emeritus and the Wilbert and Helen Ziegler Professor of Law. He has written extensively in the energy law field as noted by his recent publications. Dean Tomain also has published books entitled Achieving Democracy:The Future of Progressive Regulation (2014 Oxford University Press) and Creon’s Ghost: Law, Justice and the Humanities (2009 Oxford University Press).
In addition to his teaching and scholarship, Dean Tomain serves on a number of professional and civic organizations. Dean Tomain also has held positions as Visiting Environmental Scholar, Lewis & Clark Law School; Distinguished Visiting Energy Professor, Vermont Law School; Visiting Scholar in the Program of Liberal Studies, University of Notre Dame; Visiting Fellow, Harris Manchester College, Oxford University; Fulbright Senior Specialist in law in Cambodia; and National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Fellow, Stanford University.
On December 12, 2015, 195 nations signed what has been hailed as an historic climate agreement. The agreement went into effect on November 4 this year with 116 signatories. Additionally, one year ago, the Obama administration initiated its Clean Power Plan (CPP), the first major federal effort to merge energy and the environment for the purpose of addressing climate change. Unfortunately, two events have conspired to slow down those efforts. First the CPP has been challenged in court and a decision is expected shortly. Second, he election of Donald Trump raises serious questions about a continued commitment to both efforts in no small part because of the persons he has announced as heading federal energy and environmental agencies.
The proposed presentation will address the status of federal climate efforts and will argue that although a transition to a clean future has been occurring for decades now, particularly at the state level, additional initiatives can be undertaken for a successful transition.
First, three preconditions must be satisfied: (1) federal leadership, both domestically and globally, will facilitate, but not end, the transition; (2) clean energy resources must be clearly defined and supported; and (3) the transition must be placed in its proper economic and political contexts. In this later regard, a clean power transition is not inimical to economic growth and, therefore, policies supporting competitive clean energy markets are necessary.
Once the preconditions have been specified, then the second element is that innovation must occur also along three dimensions; (1) federal innovation policy and funding must support clean energy technologies; (2) business innovations in the private sector must follow; and (3) supporting regulatory innovations must occur at the state and federal levels.
The transition to a clean power future that is brought about by innovations in technology, business practices, and regulations will lead to a new political narrative about energy and the environment. The new politics is more democratic in two ways. First, incumbent large-scale energy firms, that have long grown accustom to government regulatory and financial support, must recognize and accept the fact that the energy sector is becoming more competitive and, therefore, incumbent firms must participate in that sector with a variety of new entrants with new products and new technologies. Second, decision-making power over the energy future will shift away from large-scale incumbents to not only smaller new entrants but decision-making power will also shift from federal regulatory authorities to local and state actors and, ultimately, to consumers themselves. The increasing energy market competition, the expansion of choices available to consumers, and the development of new energy resources and products are all part of the democratization of energy.
Pecan Street Inc., USA
Suzanne Russo is Chief Operating Officer of Pecan Street Inc., a not-for-profit energy and water research & development organization headquartered in Austin, Texas. Pecan Street is known for its unique living labs approach to accelerating innovation in clean energy, distributed energy economies, and residential water conservation. Prior to joining Pecan Street in 2010, Suzanne served as Director of Sustainability Initiatives for New York City’s Department of Housing Preservation and Development where she led the development of green building standards and education programs for New York City’s affordable housing providers. An urban planner with a Masters in Community and Regional Planning from the University of Texas at Austin, Suzanne has worked in East Africa, China, India and several states in the USA on community-based sustainable development. Forbes recently named her one of five women ‘Using Technology to Blow Up Social Change.’
The United States remains the world’s largest per capita emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG) and the second largest national emitter of GHGs. Now, more than ever, meaningful progress to rapidly reduce GHG reductions will depend on community-level action. Pecan Street Inc.’s data-driven approach to technology and policy solutions is a model for how to move forward. Pecan Street’s approach to data collection, analysis, rapid technology and policy evaluation through field trials, and evidence-driven policy recommendations is an emerging model applicable to countries around the world seeking to mitigate climate change while building robust regional economies.
Pecan Street Inc. created and maintains the world’s largest database on residential energy use available to researchers. The data is available for free to university researchers around the world through a state-of-the-art interactive database portal, Dataport (www.dataport.cloud). Currently, over 675 researchers from 47 countries are using this data.
To generate its datasets, Pecan Street engages with businesses and homeowners to instrument their properties with appliance-level energy monitoring systems. The data is used to understand the opportunities for rapid energy conservation and clean energy conversion and for optimization of clean energy solutions. The data is further used to evaluate the impacts of new technologies or policy interventions, providing rapid, verifiable results on theirefficacy.
Examples of outcomes from this approach include: 1) revealing that south-facing PV systems in Texas reduce more peak grid demand than west-facing systems, which resulted in changes to Texas utilities and California PUC policies governing rebates for residential PV systems; (2) development of optimized hardware and software solutions for battery integration at the residential level and utility scale; and (3) galvanizing communities to take more effective actions to directly combat climate change, such as the installation of over 1MW of rooftop PV spread across 211 homes as a result of the data provided by Pecan Street.
Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Vladimir Babeshko has completed his HD (Doctor of Mechanics) in 1974 from Russian Academy of Sciences. During many years he is a chief of Scientific-Research Center for Forecasting and Preventing Geo Ecological and Technologic Disasters Kuban State University and Southern Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences. He has 20 patents, published 7 monographs and more than 500 papers in reputed journals such as Russian Academy of Sciences and many others. He is the author of the Theory of the Block Element Method, has discovered the “Starting Earthquake”, and has gotten the mathematical explanations of the some Weather and Climate Change.
1. The question of localization some natural processes described by mixed boundary problems wasexplored As a result of research of this problem, taking into account seasonal changes in temperature near the Earth's surface, without taking into account the well-known strong seasonal movements of the atmosphere, trade-wind and other circulations in the atmosphere, is studied the behavior of the temperature in the surface layer. As a result some conformities were found which were not previously described, but which manifest themselves as abnormal phenomena since arise in enough favorable conditions. These are such things as the “bab’eleto” in Russia, “Aitweibersommer“ in Germany, “Indian summer” in the United States, summer snowfall, foul weather in one area, while the equanimity is so close.
2. The contact problem of acting of the two semi-infinite Kirchhoff plates on the elastic layer is considered. The vertical stresses acts on the plates. The problem is to study the contact stresses concentrations between the plates and the layer in this block structure. It was proved that the contact stresses concentrations in the end-walls of the plates became singular if thedistance between plates is equal to zero. It can induce the destruction of the materials in engineering or appearance of the earthquake in seismology. The influences of the climate change on the seismicity are discussed.
This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects nos. (15-01-01379), (15-08-01377), (16-41-230214), (16-41-230218), (16-48-230216), (177-08-00323), by the Program no 1-33P of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, projects nos. from (0256-2015-0088) till (0256-2015-0093) and State Order, project (0256-2014-0006).
Honorable Senator, Canada
Senator Galvez’s background is in Civil engineering. In 1989 and 1994, obtained respectively, a master and doctorate in environmental engineering from McGill University, Canada.She is full professor at the Department of Civil and Water Engineering at Laval University in Quebec, Canada, were she served the last 6 years as Chair. The fields of expertise of Senator Galvez include Water and Wastewater Treatment Process, Integrated Watershed Management, Municipal and Hazardous waste management, Soil Rehabilitation studies, Environmental Impacts Assessment, Risk Analysis and Aid decision Methods. Dr. Galvez is an internationally recognized researcher, author of hundreds of scientific articles and technical documents. More than 80 students have graduated under her supervision with many of them holding important posts in consulting and academic sectors around the world. She has received substantial funds that have allowed the construction and installation of state-of-the-art environmental laboratories.
Canada has thousands of lakes with the number of lakes larger than three-square kilometers being estimated to 31 752 by the Atlas of Canada. Hundreds of these lakes are affected by algae blooms and implicate harmful cyanobacteria, posing toxic effects to human health, the environment and the Canadian economy.
Toxic blue-green algae thrive in warm, slow-moving water and that is why lakes are particularly vulnerable. Harmful algae bloom during summer seasons. Warmer water due to climate change might favor harmful algae by encouraging blue-green algae survival and preventing water mixing.
Moreover, Canada uses de-icing salts for winter road maintenance, which during spring are carried by surface runoff from highways ditches to streams and to lakes; this is provoking the presence of saline cyanobacteria to appear in freshwater environments.
Algae need carbon dioxide to survive. Higher levels of carbon dioxide in the air and water can lead to rapid growth of algae, especially toxic blue-green algae that have the ability to float or think according to their needs. While extreme rainfall events associated to climate change can dilute lake water volumes, these events are also followed by periods of drought that can lead to more algal blooms, or soil erosion carrying the associate undesired nutrients.
This presentation will include statistics concerning Canadian lakes water quality; blue algae presence in Quebec province lakes. A case study will be presented: St-Augustin Lake, considered as an example where extreme conditions occur. Actions that can be applied to adapt and attenuate impacts.