Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th World Conference on Climate Change Rome, Italy.

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Day 3 :

  • Track: Risks of Climate Change
    Track: Renewable Energy to Mitigate Climate Change
    Track: Pollution & its Effects on Climate
    Track: Solutions for Climate Change
Location: Room 1

Session Introduction

Michael Schlesinger

University of Illinois, USA

Title: Post-Trump global-warming mitigation
Speaker
Biography:

Will be Updated Soon...

Abstract:

Will be Updated Soon...

Speaker
Biography:

Mauricio Tobon is a registered Professional Engineer and is presently President of Tobon Engineering a consulting firm specializing in water engineering and climate change. He is also a Senior Infrastructure Advisor for the United Nations Office of Project Services (UNOPS).

During the past year, he volunteered to serve as a mentor to 6 water districts in the Philippines for the development of Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments and Climate Resilient Business Plans. Prior to that, he was a mentor to Manila and Maynilad Water Concessionaires on utilizing the WEAP program for climate change adaptation.In addition, he volunteers as a professional mentor to the University of Florida Student Chapter of Engineers Without Borders for a water project in Nepal and Rutgers University for a water project in Tanzania. He also serves on the Technical Advisory Committee for Engineers without Borders.

During his career, which spans over 25 years, he has worked both as a consultant and in local government in positions relating to water and wastewater utilities engineering and management. He is a native of south Florida and holds both a Bachelor and Master’s Degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Florida.

Abstract:

The Philippines has been ranked globally as the third country most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change i.e. disaster risks and natural hazards. Located along the western part of the Pacific Ocean, the Philippines is rendered highly susceptible to monsoons, thunderstorms and typhoons. As an archipelago, the Philippines has an increased exposure to storms surges and sea level rise.

 

Thus, water management in the face of a changing climate regime becomes an extremely complex endeavor that is challenging the way water and wastewater utilities and service providers perform their tasks. Policy makers need to better understand the situation for them to consider a wide range of factors related to water availability and quality. i.e. increasing water demand due to population growth, probability of intensified extreme weather events and sea level rise.

 

It is against this backdrop that last year, USAID’s Be Secure program embarked on the implementation of a twinning partnership between the Florida Climate Water Alliance

(FCWA) as mentor, and the Philippine Association of Water Districts (PAWD), specifically its Community of Practice on Climate Change (PAWD-CoP-CC) as recipients. The core members of PAWD-CoP-CC are composed of: Cagayan de Oro Water District; Leyte Metro Water District; Metro Iloilo Water District; Metro Cotabato Water District; Isabela City Water District and Zamboanga City Water District.

FWCA, the mentor, is a stakeholder-scientist partnership committed to increasing the relevance of climate science data and tools at relevant time and space scales to support decision-making in water resource management, planning and supply operations in Florida. FWCA Projects contribute to assessing and developing relevant climate data and tools and ensuring their usefulness to water supply and resource planning. FWCA collaborators include six major public water supply utilities, three water management districts in Florida, local government representatives and several academic organizations.

The objective of the twinning partnership is to strengthen the capacities of PAWD’s CoPCC core group members through assistance in the development of vulnerability assessments (VA) in the context of present climate variability, extreme weather events and uncertain climate futures.

Speaker
Biography:

Koki Homma is an agronomist and crop physiologist. He graduated from Kyoto University, Japan, supervised by Prof Horie who simulated rice production under future climate conditions in Asia. One of his major activities is the investigation in farmers’ fields to evaluate production constraints and climate change impacts in Southeast Asia. This work has been conducted by collaboration with hydrologists, Toshio Koike, TetsuOhta and Kumiko Tsujimoto, under the project for “Assessing and integrating climate change impacts into the water resources management plans for Brantas and Musi River Basins” by Japan International Cooperation Agency.

Abstract:

One of the major agricultural production in Indonesia is rice production, on which negative climate change impact is anticipated. To assess the impact, simulating water budget and its effect on rice production is recommended. In this study, we developed a coupling model of hydrology and rice growth, and simulated rice yield under some GCM scenarios. After downscaling and bias-correcting GCMs, a hydrological model, the Water and Energy Budget-based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM), simulated water flow and soil moisture content in total 60,000 km2 of Musi river basin by 500m-mesh. Each mesh was categorized such as rainfed rice, shrub and so on based on governmental land use map. Rice growth and yield was simulated by a model, Simulation Model for Rice Weather Relations for rainfed (SIMRIW-Rainfed) based on the weather and soil moisture by WEB-DHM. Weather data from 1985 to 2012 was used for model calibration and validation as the present climate. The simulated rice yield under present climate was well consistent with the statistical data for rice production. Decrease in rice yield was simulated in rainfed paddy fields due to drought. Rice yield in the future (2050-2065) was slightly increased under GCM scenario gfdl_cm2_0, but largely decreased under gfdl_cm2_1. Shift of rainy season is one of the reasons of large decrease under gfdl_cm2_1, change of planting time and duration is one of adaptive strategies.

Speaker
Biography:

Daniela Martinsis graduated in Civil Engineering at UniversidadeEstadualPaulistaJúlio de MesquitaFilho in 1999. Master degree in Aeronautical Infrastructure Engineering at InstitutoTecnológico de Aeronáutica, ITA, São José dos Campos - SP, Brazil, with emphasis on Macrodrainage. Civil engineer at the Urbam in São José dos Campos. She has experience in Civil Engineering, with emphasis on Drainage and Macrodrainage, Martins made projects in Airport Infrastructure. She is currently doctor student in Airport Infrastructure Engineering with emphasis on hydrology and hydrological modeling.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Design of a simple pipe system under climate changes. Design drainage systems is usually basedon local parameters, such as area of the basin, slope angle of the surface and rainfall intensity. The determination of IDF (intensity-duration-frequency) curves, which determines the project rainfall intensity, is basedon the statistics of extremes, which usually assumes stationarity of rainfall series. However, with the evident global climate changes (IPCC, 2013 and 2014), the theory of extremes will require another kind of statistical modeling (katz, 2010; Linyin Cheng & Amir AghaKouchak, 2014; Devore, 2016),which may have strong influence on these drainage structures design. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation:in this work, the statistics of nonstationary extremes is applied to practical design problems of pipeline systems.The size of structuresand water flowwill be assessed with regard of the changes in these figures caused by the new methodologies presented herein. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate through a simple project the changes that may occur when climate changesare taken into account. Moreover, changes in costs caused by the proposed methodology will also be assessed. Findings: surprisingly, the particular case studyof this work did not show increase on project rainfall intensity, but a decrease of this parameter. Nevertheless, future works should extend this study to other basins with recorded data such as rainfall gauge, in order to make comparisons between local data series. Conclusion & Significance: The design of drainage structures should be revised to take into account climate change scenarios. However, scarcity of consistentclimate data seriesin Brazil is an important constraint to future studies, because short time series may cause wrong estimation of rainfall intensities, whichlead to wrong design calculations.

Speaker
Biography:

Xin Wang has his expertise in the physical and chemical properties of mineral dust aerosols, and the optical properties of the insoluble light-absorbing impurities in seasonal snow based on both field surveys and model simulations. The foundation in this study is based on a new method combining the multi-satellite instruments with the surface observations of dust events is develop in estimating the contribution of anthropogenic dust due to human activities in disturbed soil regions.

Abstract:

The evolution of the spatial-temporal varying trends of dust events shows that the dust event occurrences (DEO) remarkable reduced at the beginning of this century by using an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method over northern China. The results indicate that the steady decreased wind speed on Northern Hemisphere was largely responsible for the recent remarkable decline of DEO, however, the anthropogenic dust due to human activities also play key roles. Despite several attempts has been performed to investigate the climate effects due to anthropogenic dust, large uncertainties were still found due to the multi-satellite retrievals. In this study, a new method combining the multi-satellite instruments with the surface observations of dust events is develop in estimating the contribution of anthropogenic dust due to human activities in disturbed soil regions. Statistically, the column burdens of anthropogenic dust may be increased higher than 82% in the eastern areas caused by heavy local air pollution derived by human activities, but only with a limited effect lower than 15% near the desert regions. However, either way the anthropogenic effects of dust column burden are non-negligible. This study highlights the ability of significantly reducing the large uncertainty in estimating the contribution of anthropogenic dust to total atmospheric dust loadings.

Nai Kuang Liang

Internanational Ocean & Atmosphere Research Fundation, Taiwan

Title: Preliminary study of Global Warming mitigation by grazing OTEC
Speaker
Biography:

Nai Kuang  Liang has completed his Dr-Ing from Technical University Hannover, Germany. He was the director of Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University. He has published  papers in artificial upwelling, typhoon swell prediction, ocean thermal energy conversion and coastal protection. He is now Professor Emeritus of National Taiwan University.

Abstract:

Global warming means the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system. However, most of the increased heat is stored in the ocean. This causes the sea surface temperature to rise, producing extreme weather. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) utilizes the temperature difference between the sea surface water and deep seawater to generate electricity. OTEC requires pumping a large amount of deep seawater, which is clean, cold and rich in nutrients. If the used OTEC seawater, i.e. a mixture of warm and cold seawater, is released to the sea surface, an artificial upwelling is then created. The natural upwelling regions result in high levels of primary productivity and thus fishery production. The upwelling area will also present low sea surface temperature. Hence, large enough artificial upwelling may mitigate global warming. This process takes advantage of ocean thermal energy to generate clean energy, to create fishing grounds and improve climate change. An interdisciplinary research program promoted by the UN will be necessary to achieve this goal.

Speaker
Biography:

Mainly engaged in farmland greenhouse gas emission mechanism and emission reduction countermeasures. Won the 2008 Chinese Academy of Sciences Dean Excellence Award, 2009 Jiangsu Province outstanding doctoral dissertation, the second session of the Chinese soil society outstanding scholar award. Published a monograph (3); published 58 papers, including SCI papers 21, EI papers 1. Commitment and participation: the National Science and Technology Support Program, the National Natural Science Fund Project, the Ministry of Science and Technology International Science and Technology Cooperation Project, the public welfare industry (agriculture) scientific research, the Chinese Academy of Sciences strategic pilot science and technology, soil and agriculture sustainable development national key laboratory youth Research talent projects.

Abstract:

To solve the problem of water shortage, an improved plastic film mulching rice cultivation (PM) has been developed and expanded in recent years in Southwest China. It is a promising alternative to the winter-flooded rice cultivation technology (WF). To explore effects of this technology on CH4 and N2O emissions from winter-flooded paddy fields, a field experiment was conducted in Ziyang, Sichuan Province, China from 2012 to 2015. Meanwhile, the effects of nitrification inhibitors (DCD and CP) were estimated. Results showed that annual CH4 and N2O emissions from winter-flooded paddy fields ranged from 205-738 kg ha-1 and 0.05-1.52 kg N ha-1, respectively. Shifting the fields from WF to PM led to significant reduction 30-76% of CH4 emissions and 24-70% of 100-year GWP (CH4+N2O) though substantial increase of N2O emissions (10-3975%). Decrease in CH4 emissions was ascribed to the reduced CH4 production potential while N2O emissions were increased as a consequence of more suitable soil water content and single basal application of nitrogen fertilizer in plastic film mulching rice fields. Integrated assessments showed that PM relative to WF significantly enhanced the net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB: balance between the economic benefits: yield gains and input costs; and environmental costs: GWP costs), due to the input costs reduced greatly. If WF was all changed to PM in Sichuan Province, China, the mitigation of 0.53-3.89 Tg CO2-eq yr-1 in 100-year GWP (CH4+N2O) and the increase of 1.60-3.32 billion CNY yr−1 in NEEB might be achieved. Applying CP under PM conditions reduced 1-10%CH4emissions and 9-26%N2O emissions and increased 1-5% grain yields, thus mitigating 6-10% 100-year GWP (CH4+N2O) and enhancing 29% NEEB. The results demonstrate that PM and PM+CP increased economic incomes and decreased environmental costs of the fields, which would be the effective management strategies in the regions where are water scarcity.

Speaker
Biography:

Cornelius is a doctorate graduate from University of Cadiz (Spain) and University of Bologna (Italy) and expert in climate change and freshwater resources. He has experience in research and management projects and working in multicultural organisations. He is the  author of three articles in scientific peer-reviewed journals, credited as first author of two of them, with further author credits in three UNEP publications. He is currently teaching in several Kenyan universities and is an Associate at the Institute of Climate Change and Adaptation of the University of Nairobi.

Abstract:

Demand for freshwater is rising with factors, such as population growth, land use change and climate variations, rendering water availability in the future uncertain. Groundwater resources are being increasingly exploited to meet this growing demand. The aim of this study is to identify the influence of population growth induced by land use change and climate change on the future state of freshwater resources of Lamu Island in Kenya where a major port facility is under construction. The results of this study show that the “no industrial development” population scenario (assuming the port was not constructed) would be expected to reach ~50,000 people by 2050, while the projected population upon completion is expected to reach 1.25 million in the same year when the Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport Corridor Program (LAPSSET) port reaches its full cargo-handling capacity. The groundwater abstraction in 2009 was 0.06 m3 daily per capita, while the demand is expected to raise to 0.1 m3 by 2050 according to the “LAPSSET development” projection. The modelling results show that the Shela aquifer in Lamu, which is the main source of water on the island, will not experience stress by 2065 for the “no industrial development” population scenario, whereas for the “LAPSSET development projection” population scenario, it will occur sooner (between 2020 and 2028). The modelling results show that the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) climate change scenarios will have a smaller impact on the effective water volume reserves than Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) for the “no industrial development”, while the impact is expected to be similar for the “LAPSSET development”, suggesting that population growth exacerbated by land use change will be a more significant driving force than climate change in affecting freshwater availability.

Speaker
Biography:

Food, Environmental and sanitary engineer, Master in administration and Master executive in direction and management and environmental Systems, PhD in economics, Auditor with experience in advisory services, consulting, teaching researchers in areas such as the environment, environment quality, health and security management and audit systems, implementation and auditing of management integral systems (HSEQ) in different factories and companies of manufacturers and services. With experience in research on energy economics, energy efficiency, climate change, empirical analysis, social responsibility and industrial productivity in developed and developing countries.

Abstract:

Nowadays, cities account for half the world’s population and two thirds of global energy demand, and, in the coming decades, it is estimate d that energy use and associated levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will continue unabated in cities especially in developing countries. Therefore, the urban development agenda is fundamental to the improvement and mainstreaming of energy efficient and lowcarbon urban pathways that curtail climate and environmental impacts without hampering urban development and growth. Thus, a better evaluation of urban energy use is necessary for decision makers at various levels to address energy security, climate change mitigation, and local pollution abatement. Therefore, this paper measures and evaluates energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Colombian cities as a case study of a developing country with the aim to set appropriate policies and strategies without adverse effects and impacts on economic growth and development. This study applies Data Envelopment Analysis and traditional indicators to measure energy efficiency in Colombian cities. As a complementary step, data panel techniques have been used in order to determine variables that influence the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. Results from DEA suggest that Colombian cities have an excellent potential to improve energy use and reduce CO2 emissions, and several cities have experienced gains in productivity, growth in efficiency, and improvements in innovation through new technologies. Second stage panel data techniques show that energy prices, economic conditions and production structure have effects in the trends of energy use and CO2 emissions. These results indicate several policy implications with regard to energy conservation, efficient use of energy, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the importance to increase research on energy patterns in the context of cities, especially those of developing countries.

Speaker
Biography:

Joel Sotamenou is assistant Professor and researcher at the Faculty of Economics and Management of the University of Yaounde II, Cameroon. He holds a PhD in Economics from University of Yaounde II, Soa Cameroon in co-direction with the French Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD). His research interests include economy of production and the natural resources, solid waste management, corporate responsibility, farming urban systems, climate change and agriculture, Energy and environment.

Abstract:

Climate variability and change affects many sectors of the entire economy as well as agriculture. As in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, agriculture is the main sector of the economy. In Cameroon over 35% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is made up of agricultural activities. Cameroon is facing climatic stress on agriculture as many other African countries. This situation may lead to the modification of the crop calendar and in the long run may affect foodstuff (maize and groundnut) production. In this context this paper aims to evaluate the impact of temperature and rainfall on crops (maize and groundnut) cultivated in Cameroon. From an agronomic estimation applied to the time series, it is clear from our study that foodstuff production; maize and groundnut, is dependent on the fluctuating climatic factors. Thus, the production of maize and groundnut is negatively influenced by high levels of rainfall and temperatures.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr.Hasanov Sadig Huseyn has completed his PHD at the age of 41 from the Institute of Radiation Problems of Azerbaijan and  know as  sciences researcher at the Instutute of Radiation Problems. Published materials is about 10 in reputed journals in Azerbaijan, Russian and others. He is  director of  NGO   “Ecolife” which is conduct to awarness people and young generation about the environmental problems,  especially in the area of land degredationby oil and oil products, desertification, air pollution by mobile sources in Azerbaijan,   biodiversity and others. The NGO has implemented a lot of projects on this issue.

Abstract:

Impact of speed reduction measures for decrease emission by vehicles has been analyzed. We analyzed the relative change in pollutants emitted after the implementation of a speed reduction measure for passenger cars on the central streets (from 50 to 30 kph) in Sumgait and Baku. In this practical work were registered and analyzed emission reduction using the automatic devices are fitted on vehicles. For emissions the macroscopic and microscopic approach indicate a significant decrease of emissions. These results illustrate the scientific certainties while considering the implementation of speed management policies which will effectively reduce emissions at crowded roads.

The results of this work show that the restrictive speed transport in urban areas will affect the significant decrease in NOx and CO2 emissions. [1]. Taking into account the results of studies on the central streets of Sulh (Sumgait) and B. Sharifzadeh (Baku, Yasamal district), we recommend to carry out reduction of vehicle speeds on these streets for reduce emissions while in order to ensure the safety of people, reduce the impact of emissions on the environment. The results can be same in other streets of Baku and Sumgait, where a similar situation.